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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 4020

Vitamin Function Recommendation Deficiency Toxicity Food Sources Preservation Thiamin (B1) E metabolism RDA Alcohol use No reported PORK -Coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate M: 1.2mg/day -enlarged heart toxicities Grain product (TPP) W: 1.1mg/day cardiac failure - pyruvate to acetyl coA -muscular weakness No UL leaching into water - A-ketoglutarate -apathy, short memory, vitamin destroyed by to succinyl coA confusion heat Membrane of nerve cells -anorexia/ weight loss Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrom -> beriberi wet: edma dry: muscle wasting Riboflavin (B2) E metabolism RDA Deficiency disease: No reported Dairy product -Coenzyme forms M: 1.3mg/day ariboflavinosis toxicity Enriched/ whole i) Flavin mononucleotide(FMN) W: 1.1mg/day grain ii) Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) -> accepts H+ ->FADH2 Easily destroyed by UV Not by cooking Niacin (B3) Metabolism of CHO, fat, alcohol Niacin possibly from Disease: pellagra Niacin flush -milk -Coenzyme form dietary niacin and Symptoms: 4D ->vasodilatn -eggs, meat, poultry, i) NAD Tryptophan -diarrhea and fish ii) NADP (excess converted) -depression UL: 35mg/day -60mg tryp= 1 mg -dermatitis -heat resistant niacin -death -less loss during prep RDA -leach out into water M: 16NE/day W: 14NE/day Biotin Part of coenzyme-E metabolism AI: 30 microg/day Deficiency rare No reported Wide spread in foods -glycogen synthesis, Deficiency symptoms toxicities gluconeogenesis, fat synthesis, A.A : depression, lethargy (CNS) Biotin also metabolism numb/tingling in arms/legs synthesized by intestinal bacteria Biotin bound with egg white protein called Avidin ->bioavailability of biotin inhibit absorption Pantothenic E metabolism-part of coenzyme AI: 5mg/day Deficiency rare No reported Widespread in foods acid -TCA, synthesis of lipids, Deficiency symptoms toxicities -mushrooms, neurotransmitter, steroids : failure of body system avocados, broccoli hormones, hemoglobin - whole grains -coenzyme for ~4% of known enzyme destroyed by freezing, canning, refining Vitamin B6 Coenzyme forms RDA: 1.3mg/day Anemia-small cell type UL: -meat, fish, poultry -pyridoxal i) pyridoxal phospate (PLP) CNS function compromised 100mg/day -liver -pridoxine ii)pyridoxamine phospate (PMP) Alcohol destroys vit B6 -legumes/ soy -pyridoxamine INH drug (tuberculosis) CNS defects product -A.A and F.A metabolism -> antagonist of B6 -depression, -non-citrus fruits -transamination fatigue, nerve -conversion of tryptophan to damage easily destroyed by niacin or serotonin heat -nucleic acids (DNA) B6 ineffective in -production of RBC curing carpal tunnel -cognitive performance/ immune and sleep disorders -stored exclusively in MUSCLEFolate -synthesis of DNA/ new cell RDA Folate and neural tube defect UL: 1000 -leafy green vege - folic acid - needed for Vit B12 activity : 400 microg/day -brain and spinal cord microg/day -legumes, seed - folacin (coenzyme: THF and DHF) - intake <= 1mg -> spina bifida, anencephaly - PGA - excess into bile (enterohepatic -childbrearing age women -masks B12 circulation) Dietry Folate -> take folate suppl. deficiency Easily destroyed by Equivalents (DFE) containing 400mg/day symptoms heat -naturally occurring folate -bioavailability diff : polyglutamate (need further btw food folate and Folate breaks down process to get utilized, B12 supplement folate homocysteine (Heart removes methyl grp and methyl disease) grp stays in B12) High -supplement folate recommendation for Folate deficiency : monoglutamate (immediately pregnant women : disease in GI tract usable) increase in metabolic need Deficiency
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