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Neurobiology BIOL 4370 - Lecture 1 .docx

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 4370
George Zoidl

Neurobiology BIOL 4370 Monday September 9 , 2013 Lecture 1 Midterm exam – 45%, 40 questions (multiple choice), 1 hour Final exam – 55% - Cumulative examination, 40 questions (multiple choice), 1 hour *Questions based on lecture slides (obviously) 1. Introduction Neurobiology – A branch of bio that deals with anatomy and physiology and pathology of the nervous system. Evolution of the nervous system – which animals have a nervous system, where did it start?  Sea star, anemone, flatworms, squid, jelly fish earth worms => nervous system starts early on in evolution and became more and more developed  The difference is that although it starts early, the brain of fish, reptile, bird to mammals –fissures, and gyri, cortical surface, size of mammalian. There are some similarities too: the brain stem looks the same across evolution  The brain ->spinal cord (central nervous)->nerves to the peripheries (peripheral nervous system). The nerves can “induce action” (away from spinal cord) or “sensory quality” o CNS – Spinal cord and brain o PNS – cranial nerves and spinal nerves  Two divisions – sensory afferent (from periphery to the CNS), and efferent (initiated in the CNS and related to the PNS)  The ANS – involuntary, is found in the gastric system, and it consumes as much energy as the brain  Sympathetic division – “fight or flight”  Parasympathetic division – “housekeeping” “The phenomenal power of the human mind”… Your brain can’t do two things at the same time. As soon as you add more tasks, your brain becomes more confused Genetic basis of the Nervous System (NS)  8,000 genes outside NS (ubiquitous)  6,000 genes o Huge amnt of genes expressed in the brain = disorders  Sporadic cases or family inherited diseases What we can learn from brain pathology – Neurodevelopmental disorders  Microcephaly – causes reduced life expectancy,  (Hemi) Megalencephaly – brain expands which compromises the normal part of the brain. Symptoms include: delayed development and seizures  Hemispherectomy – Half a brain, yet the individual knows two different languages
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