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Neurobiology BIOL 4370 L2.docx

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 4370
George Zoidl

Neurobiology BIOL 4370 Monday September 16 , 2013 Lecture 2 Two thirds of all gene expression occurs for the brain. The age of the embryo in weeks – has critical times (purple portion before). Development has a critical period and continues Schizophrenia – involves the early period of development of the nervous system, there are “critical” stages. The critical period, myelination is out of balance, which causes schizophrenia. At the early blastula stage – early in development, it is a cell mass, has a polarity, has endoderm, and mesoderm. The animal pole has more proliferation versus the vegetal pole. Neurulation occurs at 18 days – neuroectoderm, notochord (which develops into spinal cord and releases factors that effects differentation), primitive streak, which is the early nervous system. At day 20, the cells are more differentiated, the neural crest form, which is the early PNS. The floorplate= base of the NS, and the somites =muscular system is formed as well. At 22 days – roofplate is found, neural crest is separated. At 24 days- somite packages form, first signs of sensory ganglion cells, which are present adjacent to the spinal cord. Sensory ganglions are the relay center of the sensory nerves. (*Dorsal horn = sensory input, and Ventral horn = output.) mesenchymal cells become the spinal cord. Many different cell types, of the PNS: 1. Sensory cells 2. Autonomic ganglia *digestive cells 3. Adrenal neurosecretory cells – part of the nervous system that makes hormones 4. Non-neural tissue, ie. melanocytes Spina bifida – Improper closure/fold of spinal arches, neural tube. Occulta, which is hidden, not visible. Aperta which is visibly present. Symptoms: physical complications, academic skills, social competence etc. How the brain is developed, how the CNS emerges from the neural tube Proliferation and differentiation of cells and increasing pressure,which enlarges parts of a simple neural tube. At this point prosencephalon, rhombencephalon and mesenscephalon are present. Hox genes has arrangements in clusters and by differential expression of groups of genes patterns are created along the axis. Coordinated gene expression and cell differentiation. Segments at the rhombencephalon are expressed longitudinally down the axis and then outwards laterally to the peripheries. The combination of gene expression and cellular differentiation occurs specifically for each of the developing nerves. Motor cranial nerves are found in the medially, sensory cranial nerves are found laterally, and there is a mix of both found in between Molecular basis of neural induction At this stage there are a diffusion of gradients that drives differentiation, diffusible factors are found along the floorplate of the neural tube. Three types of signaling pathways: 1. Diffusible factor which crosses cell membranes and reaches adjacent into a cell, which binds to a RA-binding protein which goes into the cells nucleus. 2. Fibroblast growth factor – binds to receptor tyrosine kinase which causes a cascade within the cell, which then goes into t
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