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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 4520
Paul Dennis

KINE 4520 May 9, 2011 MOTIVATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY PERSONALITY Does a s distinct elite athletic personality profile exist? Do people choose a sport based on their personality? What motivates an athlete to engage in a fight to the death? Are star athletes born or made? Plato - believed highest level of success was predetermined Aristotle - success is gained through training and learning Ericsson -- researched the value of persistence and hard work at ___ state university Natural Talent Myth Expert performance in sport is typically the result of deliberate practice, as opposed to natural inborn talent. (Ericsson, 2003) -Ericsson found that the people we believe are natural talents have been practicing most of their lives and practice 3-5 hours per day, more is too much (burn out) e.g. Lebron James. Prof. talks about Wayne Gretszky and rushing to get dressed to go on ice early to warm-up for warm-up and others from the team followed. Some argue that the reason Wayne Gretszky, Serena williams, Lebron James have a protein in their brain that(BDNF) allows them to learn a skill quicker than average allowing for more confidence and gaining risks and pick up things earlier than the rest of us. Can successful athletic performance be predicted on the basis of personality or intelligence assessment? Most evidence show that this is not accurate but one single event has been built up in the press as evidence that psychological test in predicts athletic success. Two football players Peton Manning and Ryan Leaf - both really good university quarterbacks. On an aptitude test Peyton Manning scored better on the Wonderlick test and he was chosen by professional team. It happens that he did well. But the test has shown that it is a very poor predictor of success. In 1995 quarterbacks chosen in the 1st round draft. So those who were “smarter” and scored higher on the test are supposed to be a better quarterback. It’s a myth that the smarter you are the better you are as an athlete. Thomas Tutko published Athletic Motivation INventory (AMI) predicts athletic success based upon personality Over 1,000 published studies have shown an inconclusive relationship. Why? It was published as a book so people believed it although there was no evidence. Performance is determined by... Skill level KINE 4520 May 9, 2011 Physical conditioning Psychological factors Genetics (includes a predisposition to behave a certain way, but it is also influenced by our environment) Personality Theories... 1. Psychodynamic Theory - all behaviour stems from conflict and compromise (ID, EGO, SUPEREGO -- because in conflict this predicts our personality). Psychological energy is to be directed toward socially acceptable activities such as sport. The discharge of this energy is “cathartic” (Sigmund Freud). There is little evidence to date but becoming popular again in psychology 2. Social Learning Theory - an individual behaves based on how he/she was taught to behave. Modeling - learn through observations. Reinforcement - rewarding behaviours (Albert Bandura). e.g. parents pat children on back after a desired behaviour then more likely to try to do it again. 3. Humanistic Theory - innate drive to enhance ourselves. Each person’s experience, beliefs, and values are emphasized. Athletes participation in sport should be viewed as personal growth. (Abraham Maslow). OCEAN Openness - being curious original open to new ideas. Conscientiousness - being organized, systematics, and achievement oriented Extraversion - being outoing, talkative, and Sociable Agreeableness - being affacble, tolerant, sensitive, trusting Neuroticism - being anxious, irritable, temperamental. So their are some traits related to team cohesion and leadership. Still important to identify traits but not for team selections. Conscientiousness and extraversion are most likely to be a team captain or a coach than the other factors (strongest predictors of athletic leadership). SO they are only predictors of potential for leadership not actual. Conscientiousness and agreeableness are related to higher levels of task cohesion. So it is okay to have conflict amongst team. It doesn’t mean they aren’t affable if they challenge each other in a polite way. 4. Psychological Dispositions -- (Anshel 2003) writes that these are better predictors than personality traits. “An athlete’s tendency to exhibit patterns of thinking, feeling, and performing in particular types of circumstances”. Disposition include: confidence, coping style, optimism. Dispositions more accurately describe successful athletes than do personality traits. (A trait is more likely not to change than disposition -- but this belief if also changing. Confidence etc. are all changeable and personality traits are not easy to change. “Energy Sapper” - is one with markedly different personality characteristics than the rest of the team (Eys 2007) (e.g vince carter). Research shows that if a single member of the team is low on conscientiousness, this can disrupt a teams task processes. (Profs. suggestions -- am I going to let this bother me if i know it’s wrong. Will I let them rent out space in my head and keep me awake at night? Let it go and don’t fume about it). “Personality and psychological testing can play an important role in plater development” (Cox, 2006). We should never use them to determine if will accept KINE 4520 May 9, 2011 you on to the teach instead use it as a benchmark if the player is low in certain areas. (Prof’s Toronto Maple Leafs plater development -- he interviewed every NHL coach in 1998 and this is what they said are the qualities that are important: Mental strength, coachability, team player, emotional control, confidence). So given to players and coach also rated the players? and if there was discrepancy than would talk with coahc. 5. Mental Toughness Attributes -bouncing back from performance setbacks -staying focused in spite of distractions -regain control after unexpected events -maintaing performance under distress -not adversely affected by others’ performance -remain focused during life distractions (students typically have different levels of mental toughness) -Mental toughness and coping (Injuries) - tough mindedness is a predictor of injury severity, but not occurrence of injury (bc put self out there but doesn’t mean injured more frequently just more severe). Cognitive Psychology -according to cognitive ..... Keys to developing a stronger mindset (Dweck, 2007) -we choose the way we think (Descartes) (BOOK: THE MINDSET OF SUCCESS) (Prof. showed photos and sad music about Haiti - did we choose to think the sad thoughts or were they automatic negative thoughts. Perhaps what he meant to say was what we have complete control over is the way we control these negative thoughts.) Quotes from newspapers to show pros are like this e.g. “I feel as though I’ve hit rock bottom” -- placing self as victim after a losing streak. “I’ve been stomping on my head for the past 3 months trying to figure out what i need to change.” --the difference between mentally tough and weak people is that generally a prof. athlete will not share this with teammates and opponents. the oppone
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