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LING 1000 - lecture 2

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York University
LING 1000
Tom Wilson

LECTURE 2: CLASSIFYING WORDS • Non-lexical words are used for grammatical function, and are not normally used just on their own • What determines word category membership: they are based on shared meaning properties / function i.e. Noun - person, place or thing • Some definitions of the categories overlap i.e sleep, dead and happiness refer to a state however they are all in different categories - verb, adjective and noun respec- tively • Most words can belong to more than one word category • I.e. He read a book - noun OR You can book your flight here - verb • Structural properties: what defines a word to a classification • Morphological: word structure properties • Syntactic: sentence structure properties • Word category membership does not mean that you have to have all the characteris- tics of that category, but you should have more in the wanted category than another one Adjective • Adjective comparative vs superlative: Absolute Comparative Superlative Tall Taller Tallest Warm Warmer Warmest Good Better best • Not all verbs can occur comparative or superlative i.e. Beautiful Determiners • Determiners only occur at the beginning of a NOUN PHRASE and not with other de- terminers Nouns • Empty promises: noun bc is plural; empty can be comparative (emptier) and can also have a degree word (very empty promises) Pronoun • Substitute a noun phrase: •[The manager] left the building: [ ] = the noun phrase •He (pronoun) left the building Pronouns • I liked that book / this book / those books / these books: determiners • I like this / that / those / these: pronouns (can occur on their own) • Possessive determine
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