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Lecture 3

LING 1000 - lecture 3 (morphology)

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York University
LING 1000
Tom Wilson

Word Structure and Word Formation (morphology) • Morphology vs etymology: •Etymology: study of historical origin of words and word formation •Morphology: study of word structure and formation in a certain pt of time • Simple vs complex words •Complex words don’t have to do with word length, meaning or if a word is common or not; the difference is simply based on the number of meanings a word can have • Empty: cannot be broken down into another smaller word *so simple word • Dirty: can be broken down to dirt *so complex word • They are both adjectives, but dirt is a noun, whereas dirty becomes an adj •So simple words have ONE element of meaning; complex words have more than one element of meaning • Morpheme: a term for a unit of meaning that cannot be analyzed into further mean- ingful parts / smaller parts •So a simple words has ONE morpheme; complex words have more than one • The words dirt = 1 morpheme; dirty = 2 morphemes; governmental = 3 mor- phemes • A words: can express meaning by itself; not all morphemes are words ( -al); whereas not all words are morphemes (fictional) Free vs bound morphemes: • •Free: can occur on its own *think, elephant, wise • Bound: must always occur with another morpheme (cannot be alone) *reconsider, sadness, marginal - so “consider” can occur on its own
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