INTEGRATION AND REVIEW
12.1 LEARNING TO LEARN
If we can learn to learn, we can build on everything we already know.
"Single-loop" learning occurs when there is a focus on the detection and
correction of error so that a system can maintain a steady state
"Double-loop" learning occurs when attention is also directed at the norms
and standards shaping the steady state, so that the state itself can be
challenged and changed when necessary (learning is part of a lifestyle)
People can learn by:
Understanding how current process can prevent success
Triple-loop learning about the context of learning (how and why we have learned
the way we have). This asks “why”
Characteristics Illustrations "Single-Loop" Learning A feedback system that detects and corrects errors to
sustain a desired state.
Behavioral modification through rewards and punishments
House thermostat that maintains the temperature of a room
Budgetary and other performance controls used to meet targets
A feedback system that "single-loops" and has the ability to change operating norms.
The "double-looping" can be (a) fairly superficial making minor adjustments, or (b) challenge deep
assumptions to create fundamental paradigm change.
An organization that challenges and changes its vision
An organization that detects and changes dysfunctional rules
Scientific methods where experiments are used to refine and develop new theory
Learning to learn
(Deutero learning or "Learning III")
A feedback system that "single" and "double-loop" learns about the context in which learning occurs.
This allows it to learn about learning, and to build learning into everything it does.
An individual or organization that masters the art of creating conte