Tutorial 4 Heron Article (I) Study Questions

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29 Mar 2012
Study Questions for Craig Heron’s “Ontario Industrializes”
1)What were some of the features of Ontario’s pre-industrial economy before 1840?
Main market is Britain
Local markets were active but small
Great majority of the population lived and worked in semi-isolated farms
Families produced what they used
Processing was done by local millers, on barter basis
Local production benefited from poor transportation limiting outside massed-
produced goods
Not a ripe terrain for industrial capitalist investment
Small artisan group
2)What were the three primary stimuli for industrial growth in Ontario after 1840?
Growth of trade in natural resources
oFrom upper Canadian forests and farms for export/down-river sales/growing
oProcessing of agricultural and forest products
Sawmills provided most jobs in the manu industry
oFood processing
Transportation sector
oInitially with steamboats on rivers canals railway
oFirst relied on local workshops, then railway cos have own metalworking
shops, largest manufacturers of producer goods in the colony
oStimulate other industries
Increase income for consumers
oRailway allows demand for other consumer goods to be fulfilled
oWealthy merchants invest in new industrial enterprises
oClothing, boots, piano
3))What were the three periods of industrial growth in Ontario after 1840 and what were
some general features of provincial growth before 1890?
3 Periods of industrial growth
1840 – economic collapse of 1857
oRise of large saw flour and textile mills
1860 to 1873
oManufactories proliferated, first more specialized factories emerged in
industries producing consumer goods
1870s to the early 1890s
oResource industries geared to export, but new investment was driven by
production for domestic market
Annual cycles and seasonal shut-downs
oClimate dictates, 62% water powered, and natural resource production
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