MGMT 1030 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Industrial Revolution

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20 Jul 2016
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Study Questions for Craig Heron’s “Ontario Industrializes”
1) What were some of the features of Ontario’s pre-industrial economy before 1840?
Merchants were finding markets in Britain for small surpluses in grain and square
timber.
Majority of population lived and worked in semi-isolated farms, producing for
themselves.
Local Artisans produced bread for the military and urban population.
This economy was small and unstable.
oSuffered from fluctuations in consumer demand.
Poor transportation system that limited access to markets outside the colony.
2) What were the three primary stimuli for industrial growth in Ontario after 1840?
Growth of trade in natural resources such as agriculture and forestry.
oProcessing of Forestry and Agriculture
oFood processing’s such as cheese and canning as farmers switched from
wheat farming to commercial dairying and mixed farming.
oProcessing of forestry was also important.
Increase in the Transportation Sector
oWent from steam boats to canals to eventually the railway system
oStarted a spinoff effect for steam engines and other metal equipment,
along with orders of machinery for new mills.
Increase in consumer products for household needs. Mowers, reapers, shoes,
stoves, boots, clothes, pianos etc were all now on sale.
3) What were the three periods of industrial growth in Ontario after 1840 and what
were some general features of provincial growth before 1890?
First Phase: Rise of the first large saw, flour, and textile mills, railway shops, and
expanded workshops in many industries.
Second Phase: (1860-1873)- Manufactories proliferated across the province and
the first more specialized factories emerged in industries producing such
consumer goods as shoes, and furniture.
Final Phase: (1878- early 1890s) – New investment was driven by production for
the domestic consumer market. Resource industry, however, still stayed very
important.
The path was not a very smooth path.
oThe economy was chronically insecure and unstable.
oSeasonal shut-downs ALWAYS occurred. Due to climate and fluctuations
in demand.
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