Class Notes (864,812)
CA (522,917)
York (37,398)
MGMT (743)
MGMT 1050 (127)
all (12)
Lecture

statistics-2_by_keller.doc

44 Pages
111 Views

Department
Management
Course Code
MGMT 1050
Professor
all

This preview shows pages 1-4. Sign up to view the full 44 pages of the document.
Description
CHAPTER 2 GRAPHICAL AND TABULAR DESCRIPTIVE TECHNIQUES SECTIONS 1 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS In the following multiple-choice questions, please circle the correct answer. 1. Which of the following statements is false? a. Allcalculations are permitted on interval data b. Allcalculations are permitted on nominal data c. The most important aspect of ordinal data is the order of the data values d. The only permissible calculations on ordinal data are ones involving a ranking process ANSWER: b 2. The average number of units earned per semester by college students is suspected to be rising. A researcher at Boston College wishes to estimate the number of units earned by students during the spring semester of 2004 at Boston. To do so, he randomly selects 250 student transcripts and records the number of units each student earned in the spring term of 2004. The variable of interest to the researcher is the a. number of students enrolled at Boston College during the spring term of 2004 b. average indebtedness of Boston College students enrolled in the spring c. age of Boston College students enrolled in the spring d. number of units earned by Boston College students during the spring term of 2004 ANSWER: d 13 14 Chapter Two 3. The classification of student major (accounting, economics, management, marketing, other) is an example of a. a categorical random variable. b. a discrete random variable c. a continuous random variable d. a parameter. ANSWER: a 4. A study is under way in national forest to determine the adult height of pine trees. Specifically, the study is attempting to determine what factors aid a tree in reaching heights greater than 50 feet tall. It is estimated that the forest contains 32,000 adult pines. The study involves collecting heights from 500 randomly selected adult pine trees and analyzing the results. The variable of interest in the study is the a. age of a pine tree in the national forest. b. height of a pine tree in the national forest. c. number of pine trees in the national forest. d. species of trees in the national forest. ANSWER: b 5. The classification of student class designation (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior) is an example of a. a categorical random variable. b. a discrete random variable. c. a continuous random variable. d. a parameter. ANSWER: a 6. Most analysts focus on the cost of tuition as the way to measure the cost of a college education. But incidentals, such as textbook costs, are rarely considered. A researcher at Ferris State University wishes to estimate the textbook costs of first-year students at Ferris. To do so, he monitored the textbook cost of 200 first-year students and found that their average textbook cost was $275 per semester. The variable of interest to the researcher is the a. textbook cost of first-year Ferris State University students. b. year in school of Ferris State University students. c. age of Ferris State University students. d. cost of incidental expenses of Ferris State University students. ANSWER: a Graphical and Tabular Descriptive Techniques 15 7. The manager of the customer service division of a major consumer electronics company is interested in determining whether the customers who have purchased a videocassette recorder made by the company over the past 12 months are satisfied with their products. The possible responses to the question “Are you happy, indifferent, or unhappy with the performance per dollar spent on the videocassette recorder?” are values from a a. discrete numerical random variable. b. continuous numerical random variable c. categorical random variable. d. parameter. ANSWER: c 16 Chapter Two TRUE / FALSE QUESTIONS 8. There are actually four types of data: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. However, for statistical purposes, there is no difference between interval and ratio data, and the authors of your book combine the two types. ANSWER: T 9. Quantitative variables usuallyrepresent membership in groups or categories. ANSWER: F 10. Interval data, such as heights, weights, and incomes, are also referred to as quantitative or numerical data. ANSWER: T 11. Nominal data are also called qualitative or categorical data. ANSWER: T 12. ATP singles rankings for tennis players is an example of an interval scale. ANSWER: F 13. Interval data may be treated as ordinal or nominal. ANSWER: T 14. Nominal data may be treated as ordinal or interval ANSWER: F 15. Professor Hogg graduated from the University of Iowa with a code value = 2 while Professor Maas graduated from Michigan State University with a code value = 1. The scale of measurement likelyrepresented by this information is interval. ANSWER: F 16. Ordinal data may be treated as interval but not as nominal. ANSWER: F 17. A variable is some characteristic of a population, while data are the observed values of a variable based on a sample. ANSWER: F 18. An automobile insurance agent believes that company “A” is more reliable than company “B”. The scale of measurement that this information represents is the ordinal scale. ANSWER: T Graphical and Tabular Descriptive Techniques 17 STATISTICAL CONCEPTS & APPLIED QUESTIONS 19. The Dean of Students conducted a survey on campus. SAT score in mathematics is an example of a __________, or __________ variable. ANSWER: quantitative, numerical 20. Provide one example for nominal, ordinal, and interval data. ANSWER: Nominal data example: Political party affiliation for voters recorded using the code: 1 = Democrat, 2 = Republican, and 3 = Independent. Ordinal data example: Response to market research survey measured on the Likert scale using the code: 1 = Strongly agree, 2 = Agree, 3 = Neutral, 4 = Disagree, and 5 = Strongly disagree. Interval data example: Temperature in tennis courts during the US Open 21. The dean of students conducted a survey on campus. The gender of the student is an example of a __________, or __________ variable. ANSWER: categorical, qualitative 22. For each of the following examples, identifythe data type as nominal, ordinal, or interval. a. The letter grades received by students in a computer science class b. The number of students in a statistics course c. The starting salaries of newlyPh.D. graduates from a statistics program d. The size of fries (small, medium, large) ordered by a sample of Burger King customers e. The college you are enrolled in (Arts and science, Business, Education, etc.) ANSWER: a. Ordinal b. Interval c. Interval d. Ordinal e. Nominal 23. The Dean of Students conducted a survey on campus. Class designation (Freshman, Sophomore, Junior, and Senior) is an example of a __________, or __________ variable. ANSWER: categorical, qualitative 18 Chapter Two 24. Most colleges admit students based on their achievements in a number of different areas. The grade obtained in senior level English course (A, B, C, D, or F) is an example of a __________, or __________ variable. ANSWER: categorical, qualitative 25. At the end of an escorted motor coach vacation, the tour operator asks the vacationers to respond to the questions listed below. For each question, determine whether the possible responses are interval, nominal, or ordinal. a. How many escorted vacations have you taken prior to this one? b. Do you feel that the stay in New York was sufficientlylong? c. Which of the following features of the hotel in New York did you find most attractive: location, facilities, room size, or price? d. What is the maximum number of hours per day that you would like to spend traveling? e. Would your overall rating of this tour be excellent, good, fair, or poor? ANSWER: a. Interval b. Nominal c. Nominal d. Interval e. Ordinal 26. For each of the following, indicate whether the variable of interest would be nominal or interval. a. Whether you are a US citizen b. Your marital status c. Number of cars in a parking lot d. Amount of time you spend per week on your homework e. Lily’s travel time from her dorm to the student union at the university of Iowa f. Heidi’s favorite brand of tennis balls. ANSWER: a. Nominal b. Nominal c. Interval d. Interval e. Interval f. Nominal 27. In purchasing a used automobile, there are a number of variables to consider. The age of the car is an example of a __________, or __________ variable. Graphical and Tabular Descriptive Techniques 19 ANSWER: quantitative, numerical 28. In purchasing an automobile, there are a number of variables to consider. The body style of the car (sedan, coupe, wagon, etc.) is an example of a __________, or __________ variable. ANSWER: categorical, qualitative 29. Before leaving a particular restaurant, customers are asked to respond to the questions listed below. For each question, determine whether the possible responses are interval, nominal, or ordinal. a. What is the approximate distance of the restaurant from your residence? b. Have you eaten at the restaurant previously? c. On how many occasions have you eaten at the restaurant previously? d. Which of the following attributes of the restaurant do you find most attractive: service, prices, quality of the food, or varied menu? e. Would your overall rating of the restaurant be excellent, good, fair, or poor? ANSWER: a. Interval b. Nominal c. Interval d. Nominal e. Ordinal 20 Chapter Two SECTION 2 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS In the following multiple-choice questions, please circle the correct answer. 30. The best type of chart for comparing two sets of categorical data is a a. line chart b. pie chart c. histogram d. bar chart ANSWER: d 31. Which of the following statements about pie charts is false? a. Pie charts are graphical representations of the relative frequency distribution b. Pie charts are usually used to display the relative sizes of categories for interval data. c. Pie charts always have the shape of a circle d. Area of each slice of a pie chart is the proportion of the corresponding category of the frequency distribution of a categorical variable ANSWER: b 32. The two graphical techniques we usuallyuse to present nominal data are a. bar chart and histogram b. pie chart and ogive c. bar chart and pie chart d. histogram and ogive ANSWER: c 33. Which of the following statements is false? a. A bar chart is similar to a histogram b. A pie chart is a circle subdivided into slices whose areas are proportional to the frequencies c. Pie charts emphasize the frequency of occurrences of each category in a frequency distribution d. None of the above ANSWER: c 34. Which of the following statements is true? a. Bar charts focus the attention on the frequency of the occurrences of the categories b. A bar chart is created by drawing a rectangle representing each category c. The height of each rectangle in a bar chart represents the frequency for a particular category d. Allof the above ANSWER: d Graphical and Tabular Descriptive Techniques 21 TRUE / FALSE QUESTIONS 35. A bar chart is used to represent interval data. ANSWER: F 36. One of the advantages of a pie chart is that it clearly shows that the total of all the categories of the pie adds to 100%. ANSWER: T 37. The bar chart is preferred to the pie chart, because the human eye can more accurately judge length comparisons against a fixed scale (as in a bar chart) than angular measures (as in a pie chart). ANSWER: T 38. Bar and pie charts are graphical techniques for nominal data. The former focus the attention on the frequency of the occurrences of the categories, and the later emphasize the proportion of occurrences of each category. ANSWER: T 39. Bar and pie charts are two graphical techniques that can be used to represent nominal data. ANSWER: T 40. A bar chart is similar to a histogram in the sense that the bases of the rectangles are arbitrary intervals whose centers are the midpoints of the intervals. ANSWER: F 41. If we wish to emphasize the relative frequencies for nominal data, we draw a histogram instead of drawing a bar chart. ANSWER: F 42. Pie and bar charts are used widelyin newspapers, magazines, and business and government reports. ANSWER: T 43. The size of each slice in a pie chart is proportional to the percentage corresponding to that category. ANSWER: T 44. A category that contains 30% of the observations is represented by a slice of a pie chart that contains 100 degrees. ANSWER: F 22 Chapter Two STATISTICAL CONCEPTS & APPLIED QUESTIONS 45. Identify the type of data for which each of the following graphs is appropriate. a. Pie chart b. Bar chart ANSWER: a. Nominal b. Nominal 46. Voters participating in a recent election exit poll in Minnesota were asked to state their political party affiliation. Coding the data 1 for Republican, 2 for Democrat, and 3 for Independent, the data collected were as fol3, 1, 3, 3, 2, 1, 3, 3, 2, 1, 1, 3, 2, 3, 1, 3, 2, 3, 2, 1, 1, and 3. Construct a frequency bar graph. ANSWER: 12 10 y n 8 u 6 r 4 F 2 0 RepublicanDemocrat Independent FOR QUESTIONS 47 AND 48, USE THE FOLLOWING NARRATIVE: Narrative: Car Dealers Car buyers were asked to indicate the car dealer they believed offered the best overall service. The four choices were Carriage Motors (C), Marco Chrysler (M), Triangle Auto (T), and University Chevrolet (U). The following data were obtained: T C C C U C M T C U U M C M T C M M C M T C C T U M M C C T T U C U T M M C U T Graphical and Tabular Descriptive Techniques 23 47. {Car Dealers Narrative} Construct a frequency bar chart. ANSWER: 15 y n 10 u r 5 F 0 C M T U Dealership 48. {Car Dealers Narrative} Construct a pie chart. Which car dealer offered the best overall service? ANSWER: U 17.5% C 35.0% T 22.5% M 25.0% It seems that Carriage Motors offered the best overall service. 24 Chapter Two 49. Given the following five categories and the number of times each occurs, draw a pie chart and a bar chart. Category 1 2 3 4 5 Frequency 15 30 40 25 20 ANSWER: Bar Chart 45 40 35 30 c e25 q r20 F 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Category Graphical and Tabular Descriptive Techniques 25 Pie Chart 5 1 15% 12% 2 4 23% 19% 3 31% FOR QUESTIONS 50 AND 51, USE THE FOLLOWING NARRATIVE: Narrative: Business School Graduates The frequency distribution for a sample of 200 business school graduates is shown in the following table. Major of Graduates Number of graduates Accounting 58 Finance 42 Management 38 Marketing 52 Other 10 50. {Business School Graduates Narrative} Draw a pie chart of the number of graduates. ANSWER: Other 5.0% Accounting Marketing 29.0% 26.0% Management Finance 19.0% 21.0% 26 Chapter Two 51. {Business School Graduates Narrative} Draw a frequency bar chart. ANSWER: 70 60 y 50 n u 40 e 30 F 20 10 0 g e n g r t n e et te on i ge r O cc F n Ma A M Major Graphical and Tabular Descriptive Techniques 27 SECTION 3 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS In the following multiple-choice questions, please circle the correct answer. 52. The most appropriate type of chart for determining the number of observations at or below a specific value is: a. a histogram b. a pie chart c. a time-series chart d. a cumulative frequency ogive ANSWER: d 53. In general, incomes of employees in large firms tend to be a. positively skewed b. negatively skewed c. symmetric d. Allof the above ANSWER: a 54. The total area of the bars in a relative frequency histogram: a. depends on the sample size b. depends on the number of bars c. depends on the width of each bar d. depends on the height of each bar ANSWER: c 55. Which of the following statements is false? a. A frequency distribution counts the number of observations that fall into each of a series on intervals, called classes that cover the complete range of observations. b. The intervals in a frequency distribution may overlap to ensure that each observation is assigned to an interval c. Although the frequency distribution provides information about how the numbers in the data set are distributed, the information is more easily understood and imparted by drawing a histogram d. The number of class intervals we select in a frequency distribution depends entirely on the number of observations in the data set ANSWER: b 56. The total area of the five bars in a relative frequency histogram for which the width of each bar is four units is: a. 5 b. 4 c. 9 d. 1 28 Chapter Two ANSWER: b 57. The relative frequency of a class is computed by a. dividing the frequency of the class by the number of classes b. dividing the frequency of the class by the class width c. dividing the frequency of the class by the total number of observations in the data set d. subtracting the lower limit of the class from the upper limit and multiplying the difference by the number of classes ANSWER: c 58. A modal class is the class that includes a. the largest number of observations b. the smallest number of observations c. the largest observation in the data set d. the smallest observation in the data set ANSWER: a 59. The sum of the relative frequencies for all classes willalways equal a. the number of classes b. the class width c. the total number of observations in the data set d. one ANSWER: d 60. When ogives or histograms are constructed, which axis must show the true zero or “origin”? a. The horizontal axis. b. The vertical axis. c. Both the horizontal and vertical axes. d. Neither the horizontal nor the vertical axis. ANSWER: b 61. The width of each bar in a histogram corresponds to the a. differences between the lower and upper limits of the class. b. number of observations in each class. c. midpoint of each class d. frequency of observations in each class. ANSWER: a 62. The most important and commonlygraphical presentation of interval data is a a. bar chart b. histogram c. pie chart d. cumulative frequency distribution ANSWER: b Graphical and Tabular Descriptive Techniques 29 63. According to Sturges’ rule, the ideal number of class intervals in a frequency distribution of n = 150 data equals about a. 8 b. 15 c. 20 d. 28 ANSWER: a 64. According to Sturges’ rule, the ideal number of class intervals in a frequency distribution equals a. 5 b. 15 c. 3.3 + log (n), where n is the size of the data set. d. 1 + 3.3 log (n), where n is the size of the data set. ANSWER: d 65. How many classes should a histogram contain if the number of observations is 250? a. 5, 6, or 7 b. 7, 8, or 9 c. 9 or 10 d. 10 or 11 ANSWER: c 66. How many classes should a frequency distribution contain if the number of observations is 45? a. 5, 6, or 7 b. 7, 8, or 9 c. 9 or 10 d. 10 or 11 ANSWER: a 67. Sturge’s formula recommends that the number of class intervals to construct a frequency distribution or draw a histogram using a data set with n observations is determined by: a. log(n) b. 3.3 log(n) c. 1 + 3.3 log(n) d. 2 – 3.3 log(n) ANSWER: c 68. Which of the following statements about number of modal classes is false? a. A unimodal histogram is one with a single peak b. A bimodal histogram is one with two peaks, not necessarilyequal in height c. A bimodal histogram is one with two peaks equal in height d. None of the above ANSWER: c 30 Chapter Two 69. Which of the following statements about shapes of histograms is true? a. A histogram is said to be symmetric if, when we draw a vertical line down the center of the histogram, the two sides are identical in shape and size b. A positively skewed histogram is one with a long tail extending to the right c. A negatively skewed histogram is one with a long tail extending to the left d. Allof the above ANSWER: d Graphical and Tabular Descriptive Techniques 31 TRUE / FALSE QUESTIONS 70. A relative frequency distribution describes the proportion of data values that fall within each class, and may be presented in a histogram form. ANSWER: T 71. A relative frequency distribution describes the proportion of data values that fall within each category. ANSWER: T 72. The stem-and-leaf display reveals far more information relative to individual values than does the histogram. ANSWER: F 73. Individual observations within each class may be found in a frequency distribution. ANSWER: F 74. The following stem-and-leaf output has been generated by statistical software. The median of this data is 26. Stem-and-leaf of C2 N = 75 Leaf Unit = 10 9 0 000112333 14 0 56899 21 1 0000123 26 1 66699 33 2 3334445 (8) 2 66677888 34 3 0023344 27 3 56669999 19 4 000122233 10 4 5556667799 ANSWER: F 75. A cumulative frequency distribution lists the number of observations that are within or below each of the classes. ANSWER: T 76. The following stem-and-leaf output has been generated by statistical software. This data has a negative mode. 32 Chapter Two Stem-and-leaf of C2 N = 75 Leaf Unit = 0.01 1 -2 6 2 -2 0 5 -1 555 8 -1 420 22 -0 99999887777665 36 -0 44322111111000 (14) 0 01122233333344 25 0 66678889999 14 1 0022222334 4 1 56 2 2 03 ANSWER: T 77. Compared to the frequency distribution, the stem-and-leaf display provides more details, since it can describe the individual data values as well as show how many are in each group, or stem. ANSWER: T 78. A histogram represents nominal data. ANSWER: F 79. In the term “frequency distribution,” frequency refers to the number of data values falling within each class. ANSWER: T 80. The class interval in a frequency distribution is the number of data values falling within each class. ANSWER: F 81. The largest value in a set of data is 140, and the lowest value is 70. If the resulting frequency distribution is to have five classes of equal width, the class width willbe 14. ANSWER: T 82. A stem-and-leaf display describes two - digit integers between 20 and 70. For one of the classes displayed, the row appears as 4|256. The numerical values being described are 24, 54, and 64. ANSWER: F 83. The following “character histogram” has been generated by statistical software. The median class is 150. Histogram of C1 N = 75 Graphical and Tabular Descriptive Techniques 33 Midpoint Count -150 1 * -100 1 * -50 3 *** 0 2 ** 50 7 ******* 100 12 ************ 150 18 ****************** 200 20 ******************** 250 5 ***** 300 5 ***** 350 1 * ANSWER: T 84. The following stem-and-leaf output has been generated by statistical software. This data set has a mean that is negative, and there is no modal class. Stem-and-leaf of C2 N = 10 Leaf Unit = 0.10 2 - 1 53 4 - 0 97 (2) - 0 65 4 0 3 3 0 6 2 1 3 1 1 8 ANSWER: T 85. A frequency distribution is a listing of the individual observations arranged in ascending or descending order. ANSWER: F 86. When a distribution has more values to the left and tails to the right, it is skewed negatively. ANSWER: F 87. A histogram is said to be symmetric if, when we draw a vertical line down the center of the histogram, the two sides are identical in shape and size. ANSWER: T 88. A skewed histogram is one with a long tail extending either to the right or left. The former is called negatively skewed, and the later is called positivelyskewed. 34 Chapter Two ANSWER: F 89. A bimodal histogram is one with two or more peaks equal in height. ANSWER: F 90. A cumulative frequency distribution when presented in graphic form is called an ogive. ANSWER: T 91. When a distribution has more values to the right and tails to the left, we say it is skewed positively. ANSWER: F 92. The sum of relative frequencies in a distribution always equals 1. ANSWER: T 93. The stem-and-leaf display is often superior to the frequency distribution in that is maintains the original values for the further analysis. ANSWER: T 94. The sum of cumulative frequencies in a distribution always equals 1. ANSWER: F 95. If the values of the sixth and seventh class in a cumulative frequency distribution are the same, we know that there are no observations in the seventh class. ANSWER: T 96. The larger the number of observations in a numerical data set, the larger the number of class intervals needed for a frequency distribution. ANSWER: T 97. The original data values cannot be assessed once they are grouped into a frequency distribution. ANSWER: T 98. A research analyst was directed to arrange raw data collected on the yield of wheat, ranging from 40 to 90 bushels per acre, in a frequency distribution. He should choose 40 as the class interval width. ANSWER: F 99. The relative frequency of a class is the frequency of that class divided by the total number of classes. ANSWER: F 100. Ogives are plotted at the midpoints of the class intervals. ANSWER: F Graphical and Tabular Descriptive Techniques 35 101. Sturge’s formula recommends that the number of class intervals needed to draw a histogram using a data set with 200 observations is 12.79 which we round to 13. ANSWER: F 102. A modal class is the class with the largest number of observations. ANSWER: T 103. Incomes of employees in large firms tend to be negatively skewed, because there is a large
More Less
Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Only pages 1-4 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit