A Brand is a name, word(s), symbol, or design that identifies an organization and its products
o Includes a company’s overall image and values – how it is perceived
Brand Identity consists of:
o Brand Name
o Logo &/or Symbol
Branding is the process of creating a brand image that engages the minds and hearts of
o Brand Name: Puma Brand Logo/Symbol: Puma Cat Brand Identity: Both
A trade name is the legal name of a company
o Coca-Cola Limited (trade name); Coke or Coca-Cola (brand names)
o Reebok International Limited (trade name); Reebok (brand name)
When a brand name or trade name is registered, it also becomes a trademark
A trademark legally identifies ownership of a registered brand or trade name
A soundmark is a trademark identified by a sound that is associated with a company
o i.e. the roaring lion a the start of an MGM film
A motionmark is a trademark identified by a specific movement associated with a company
o Winged horse that leaps off the screen before a tri-star film
Other companies or individuals must pay a license fee or royalties to use any of these
Trademarks have a TM or R. beside them.
A brand personality involves associating human traits to a brand
o i.e. Nike as a ‘winning’ personality
o IBM as ‘old’; Mac as ‘young’ and ‘friendly’
Differentiates the brand and helps build brand value or equity
Celebrities as Brands:
Celebrities are not just performers; they are also “brands” who have monetary and non-
o Lebron’s brand: loyal friendly ball player
o Poor handling of free agency over the summer (2010) changes his image and brand
o New brand: selfish ‘traitor’?
o Also affects the Nike Brand he endorses
o Nike releases the “Rise” ad featuring Lebron Brand Loyalty:
Brand Loyalty: the psychology of preference; how faithful a customer is to a particular brand,
regardless of pressure from competing brands
o Willing to pass up other brands for the one they want most
Stages of Brand Loyalty:
o 3. Insistence
o 2. Preference Triangle From Top to Bottom
o 1. Recognition
o Consumers are aware of a brand and know something about it
o BUT.. May not have had a personal experience with the brand
o Example: I recognize Lacoste clothing, but haven’t ever bought the brand
o Customers would rather have a particular brand BUT will buy something else if it is not
o You may go out looking to buy a pair of Nike track pants, but will settle for Adidas if you
can’t find it (or if it is cheaper)
o Customers absolutely, positively want a particular brand, and ONLY that brand!
o You won’t settle for anything else
A customer moves through the stages by having repeated, positive experiences with a particular
How does a company ensure repeat positive experiences?
o Brand promise: consistently deliver on brand characteristics and values
o FedEx - Your package will get there overnight. Guaranteed.
Brands & Strategies:
There are three types of Brands:
o Manufacturer Brands
o Intermediary Brands
o Generic Brands
o Owned by the producer of the product
o Producer responsible for marketing the brand
o Examples: HP, Apple, Sony, Adidas, Champion
o Carries a name developed by the wholesaler or retailer
o Sell manufacturer’s products under their own private labels
o Examples: SportChek brand, FootLocker brand
o Represent a general product category and does not carry a (recognized) company or
brand name. It is non-destinctive.
o Example: grocery store items
o Not common in the sports industry o It is often inaccurate to describe these products as "lacking a brand name", as they
usually are branded, albeit with either the brand of the store in which they are sold or a
lesser-known brand name which may not be aggressively advertised to the public
o Eg. Band-aids, Cheerios
Brands can be marketed using the following strategies:
o Multi-Product Branding: the manufacturer uses one name for all its products
o Multi-Branding – Each product in a product line has a distinctive name.
o Co-Branding: combines one or more brands to increase customer loyalty and sales for
o the manufacturer uses one name for all its products (eg. Nike)
o Multiple products carry the same brand name (Nike for women & men, Nike shoes, Nike
o Includes brand extension: using the existing brand name for an improved or new
product in the product line
o Each product in a product line has a distinctive name.
o This strategy is used for products that target different consumers.
o .. &/or to prevent competitors from taking market share (how?) potential
o Proctor & Gamble (P&G)
o combines one or more brands to increase customer loyalty and sales for each product.
o E.g. Visa co-branded with Aeroplan; other loyalty affiliations
Strategy Advantages Disadvantages
Multi-Product o The promotion of one item, o Can delete the effectiveness of the brand
promotes the other name. When consumers see the brand name
Branding o Efficiency of advertising money everywhere on many different types of
o It facilitates acceptance of new products, they may not necessarily put the
products by retailer and same faith in the brand as they once did
consumer (dilute the image).
o Creates further brand awareness o When you put your brand name on many
o Easy for the consumer to different types of products, you eventually
maintain brand loyalty may have a hard time managing them all