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York University (32,589)
MODR 1760 (122)
Lecture 3

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York University
Modes Of Reasoning
MODR 1760
Hilary Davis

22/09/2011 18:21:00 ← Appeal to Popularity, Common Belief or Common Practice • Appeal to Popularity o We are told to accept something because it is widely believed, accepted or done • Appeal to Tradition o Appeals to custom or tradition o Because we’ve done it a particular way for many years, we must continue to do it this way  Variations: Appeal to Common Belief or Appeal to Common Practice • Appeal to Group Membership or Patriotism (Mob Appeal) o Uses patriotism, repetition, sarcasm, innuendo, high- mindedness to exploit our emotions o Exploits are need to belong to a group o Assures us that the group is right, flattering the crowd or appealing to their prejudice o Presentation is theatrical, repetition is used o Makes it difficult for us to disagree or express the opposite opinion o For if we disagree we are excluded from the group • Appeal to Novelty or Change o Saying something is old fashioned, so it must be wrong • Appeal to Dislike of Unusual or Uncommon Habits, Beliefs, etc. o Reject something because a lot of people do not like it • Appeal to Racial, Religious, or Social Prejudice o Rejecting someone or something for being apart of a group or class ← Appeal to Authority • Secondary way of getting evidence • Being asked to be convinced on someone’s word or authority • Appeals to our sense that others know better that we do o Criteria for good arguments from Authority:  The authority should be knowledgeable, trustworthy, and free of bias & their credentials should be state  The knowledge of the authority is current  Those credentials should be relevant to the argument  Authority shouldn’t be biased or stand to gain from their argument  Claim should be one with wide agreement among experts Hasty Generalization • What is true in a particular scenario is also universally true • Has a generalized claim • Has a specific case in the premise and a general rule in the conclusion • Often rely on anecdotal evidence in their premises and counter- evidence is often ignored o If conclusion says, “all…people…children…etc.” this may be a hasty generalization  Do not confuse with False Causes • Criteria for good generalization: o It is based on evidence – the observation of a number of
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