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Lecture

MODR 1760 Fallacies

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Department
Modes Of Reasoning
Course
MODR 1760
Professor
Diane Zorn
Semester
Fall

Description
Oct 25 , 2011 *argument = reason (premise) + conclusion 3 criteria for a good argument: 1.relevancy; premises that are relevant to the truth of the conclusion 2.acceptability; premises that are acceptable 3.sufficiency; Violating the criteria means: *left side = criteria for good argument *right side = NOT the name of the fallacy; refer to entire groups of fallacies that correspond to that criteria Relevance  irrelevant reason Sufficiency  hasty conclusion Acceptability  problematic premise Relevance Criterion for a Good Argument: A premise is relevant if: -provides some reason to believe -counts in favour of -makes a difference to the truth or falsity of the conclusion -has some bearing on the truth or merit on the conclusion Q’s to ask in an effort to determine whether a particular premise/reason is relevant? *good for test  Would the premise’s being true in any way make one more likely to believe that the conclusion is true?  Does the premise seem to have any connection to whether or not the conclusion is true?  Even if the premise is true, should it be a consideration in the determination of whether or not the conclusion of the argument is true? Acceptability Criterion for a Good Argument: A reason is acceptable if: -it is the kind of claim that would be accepted by a reasonable person (age of 7 or older with no cognitive disabilities) in the face of all the relevant evidence given -can’t be false -can’t be doubtful -can’t be unclear (vague, ambiguous) ; vague = not given enough info to understand the meaning (what do they mean?), too sketchy; ambiguous = stated in a way where it could have many meanings and it is not clear Sufficiency Criterion for a Good Argument: -must be a sufficient # of relevant and acceptable premises of the appropriate kind and weight in order for an argument to be good enough for us to accept its conclusion -need to be enough reasons: number, weight (is the argument one sided, is there a global sufficiency? Seem to have ignored other considerations, maybe the reason that have been given are not important enough), kind Definition of a “fallacy”: -a pattern of faulty reasoning -a faulty argument that at first appears to be correct -violation of 1 of the 3 criteria of a good argument A fallacy meets at least 2 conditions: 1. It is a pattern of reasoning 2.
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