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MODR 1770B Note 13

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York University
Modes Of Reasoning
MODR 1770
Jai Chetram

MODR 1770B Note 13 - For Article Analysis: o Groups E/F/G/H will go on Wed. March 6 th th o Groups A/B/C/D will go on Wed. March 13 - There’s a Midterm (Open Book) Wed. March the 20 . This isn’t a memorization test, but as long as we have the skills we will be fine - The final Article Analysis is due Sunday March 31 . We will submit it to Passage/Article Analysis - This is where you bring back the skills from argument and argumentation, conceptual analysis and determine how an author uses/defines a concept, and whether they have embedded assumptions and whether they’re consistent - We evaluate deductive/inductive arguments, and look for hidden premises and fallacies in arguments - We are not taking a position, instead we’re critical thinkers evaluating the authors position (remain neutral position) o We should be in a position to publish after this. - Step 6: o Keeping our own analysis in mind, examine the authors use of these same concepts  1) Are they clearly defined?  2) Are they used in a sense that it too narrow or too wide?  3) Are they used consistently or do they shift in meaning throughout the passage Fallacy of equivocation  4) Positive feedbacks on two of their strongest concepts - Step 7: o 1) o 2) Does the argument violate any of the criteria for the good argument (Reasonability, Sufficiency, Acceptability) o Are there any clear or serious fallacies o Can some of the arguments be made stronger? Write at least one argument that can be made stronger while positively criticizing it - When confronted with a passage, first read it through before any kind of annotation. o Once you read the passage, separate the paragraph. - This example: Most Americans take a middle-position. o He’s taking a huge assumption that most Americans take this position  However, he hasn’t taken the middle position. - IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO GET THE CONCLUSION, IF NOT, EVERYTHING ELSE FAILS Example Analysis - Step 1: o Master Conclusion: discrimination is not the same as personal distaste (Paragraph 1)  Every time you do analysis always source where you get your information from - Step 2: When looking at the passage, you can find many concepts – however, you only select those that evoke the conclusion o Paragraph 1:  Discrimination, personal distaste, homosexuality, prejudice o Paragraph 2:  Sinful, repulsive, moral vacuity, middle position. o Make up a list of concept that you evaluate in step 6  This is the preparation for it: o Discrimination Paragraph 1, Personal Distaste P.1, … Middle Position P2. - Step 3: o So far, one person can do step one and two o Formulate the main conceptual question that this can be asked  This is our ability to ask and construct conceptual questions  Construct three questions with two of the concepts from step 2.  Make sure that all the conceptual questions lead to the answer being the author’s conclusion o Example:  Is discrimination the same as personal distaste?  Is the middle position prejudicial?  Is personal distaste the same as the middle position? - Step 4: o Select 3 premises that best bear on the conclusion that the author is arguing for  Premise 1 Par1  Premise 2 Par1  Premise 3 Par2  Get a hidden premise – what is assumed but not stated in the passage. State where it comes from.  He assumes that homosexuality is a choice – just like abortion. o He’s using them as equivalent terms  Para2. o This is an argument, therefore it must look like an argument o You must bring back our step one – and put it at the bottom of the premises, so it looks like an argument. DO NOT FORGET TO PUT THE CONCLUSION. - The point of step 5 is to select one of the questions and do the brief conceptual analysis of doing it.  THIS STEP IS DELETED. - We have to create a preliminary chart (step we have to do before step 6) o You make up a chart to find synonyms and associations as to how the author uses the two synonyms between the concepts Discrimination
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