Class Notes (834,734)
Canada (508,704)
York University (35,167)
MODR 1770 (89)

MODR 1770-CH2 Notes.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Modes Of Reasoning
MODR 1770
Glen Hoffman

MODR 1770 Oct 1/12 CH 2 – The ‘Environment’ of Critical Thinking Lecture + Notes  Crit. thinking happens in an ‘environment’ that is often hostile to it  If process fails to be systematic, or isn’t a true evaluation/formulation or ignores rational standards, then crit. thinking can’t happen Ways to avoid this:  Ways to detect errors in our thinking  Restrain the attitudes and feelings that can distort out reasoning  Achieve a level of objectivity that makes crit. thinking possible Requires:  Awareness of what is involved in good crit. thinking & what can result from slopping thinking  Practice avoiding pitfalls & using crit. thinking skills & techniques  Motivation to make the extra effort Common Impediments of Crit. Thinking C ATEGORY 1:  Hindrances as a result of how we think  Usu. because of psychological factors {fears, attitudes, motivations, desires}  {Conform to opinions of peers} C ATEGORY 2:  As a result of what we think  Arise from certain philosophical ideas we have {our beliefs about beliefs}  {Belief that objective thinking is impossible/don’t know anything/don’t know what we think we know} SELF -INTERESTED THINKING – CATEGORY 1  Accepting a claim solely because it advances/coincides with our interests {to save face} o Won’t/can’t consider rational reasons; too emotional  Consequences: self destructive {decrease changes of success, hamper personal growth, maturity & self awareness} MODR 1770 Oct 1/12  Leave you open to manipulation & propaganda  Can never completely get rid of this in critical thinking To overcome this:  Watch out when things get very personal  Be alert to ways that critical thinking can be undermined {faulty reasoning}  Make sure nothing has been left out; consider arguments for and against your position/claim (not selection bias) o Part of selective attention o Make a conscious effort to look for opposing evidence F ALLACY  An argument form that is both common and defective G ROUP THINKING / PRESSURE – CATEGORY 1 Peer pressure  Group pressure to accept/reject a claim solely on the basis of what one’s peers think/do Appeal to popularity/masses  An argument that tries to support a conclusion on the basis of the mere popularity of a belief  The fallacy of arguing that a claim must be true merely because a substantial # of people believe it  Both cases: lapse in critical thinking comes from the fact that views/behaviour of the group alone is taken as reason to support a claim Appeal to common practice  The fallacy of accepting/rejecting a claim solely based on what groups of people generally do/behave when it’s irrelevant to the truth of the claim  Group pressure can happen quickly or take a while to have an effect  Often leads to prejudice, bias and racism  May have beliefs just because we were born into them; like the influence of the self this ENDEMIC pressure can lead to wishful thinking, rationalization & self- deception.  Can easily generate narrow-mindedness, resistance to change & stereotyping (drawing conclusions about people without sufficient reasons)  The best way to deal with the power of the group is to proportion your belief to the strength of reasons. MODR 1770 Oct 1/12 Appeal to tradition  {religion} Genetic Fallacy  Addressing where the argument came from; attacking the source of the argument and not the argument itself  {Stereotype} W ORLD VIEW  A philosophy of life; a set of fundamental ideas that help us make sense of a wide range of important issues in life; help to guide us in the evaluation/acceptance of many other less basi
More Less

Related notes for MODR 1770

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.