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York University
Modes Of Reasoning
MODR 1770
Jai Chetram

Kinds of Claims: 1. Empirical: Acceptability established by our experience and our observation of the world around us. Ex. The book is black. Ex. Cesar died in 47 BC. Ex. All swans are white. Ex. You are running at 2m/s, 2. Conceptual: about the meaning of words and expressions. Ex. A bachelor is an unmarried male. Ex. Advertising is the same thing as propaganda. 3. Normative: One that prescribes a value. i. Aesthetic: Concerned with the issue of art and beauty. Ex. The Mona Lisa is beautiful. Ex. What a lovely work of art. ii. Practical: concerned with the decisions about appropriate cause of action. Ex. You deserve an F on this paper. iii. Ethical: Concerned with issues of right/wrong behavior/ fairness/ equity/ duty and obligation. Ex. It is bad to kill people. Ex. Don’t harm others. Fallacies of irrelevancy: Violates the relevancy criterion. 1. Genetic: A type of argument in which an attempt is made to prove a conclusion false by accusing its background or origin. How an idea is originated is irrelevant to its validity. Pg 216. 2. Abusive Ad: A type of argument in which an attempt is made to prove a conclusion false by accusing its speaker by insulting his/her character/background/associates/competence. Pg.218. 3. Circumstantial Ad: Saying that an individual’s argument is invalid because of their personal relationships to the subject. Pg.221 4. Tu Quoke: A person advocating a position is charged with acting in a manner that contradicts the position taken. They failed to follow their own advice. pg.222 5. Poison in the well: Rejecting a criticism or argument presented by another person because of the persons special circumstances or improper motives. Pg.224 6. Mob Appeal: Using emotional language to sway a large group of people. You appeal to the emotions that a large group of people would experience.Pg.227 7. Appeal to Pity: Attempt to persuade others of a position by appealing to their sympathy instead of relevant evidence. Pg. 225 8. Appeal to Authority: We try to justify an idea by citing some source of expertise as a reason for holding that idea, it is fallacious when we cite those who have no special competence regarding the matter at hand. Pg.248 Appeal to Ignorance and Appeal to Fear are self explanatory. Pg.245 and Pg.248 Fallacies of Ambiguity: violates the acceptability criterion 1. Equivocation: Occurs when a word or phrase is used 2 differe
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