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Modes Of Reasoning
MODR 1770
Kari L.Hoffman

Introduction: In this essay, I will outline the moral theory of utilitarianism in the first paragraph. Then, I will explain the “innocent bystander” or “justice” objection to the theory. Lastly, I will critically evaluate whether the objection was convincing or unconvincing. In my point of view, the “innocent bystander” or “justice” objection is convincing. First Paragraph: Theory of Utilitarianism • Utilitarianism is a normative moral theory, whose central idea is “the greatest good for greatest number” • In general term, it means that an action is right if it produces greatest amount of happiness. • It’s a species of consequentialism. • Consequententaialism • Utility: a unit of value (“pleasure”)(Units of happiness caused by an action minus of unhappiness caused by action) • According to John Mill Stuart’s “The Greatest Happiness principle” states that “Actions are right in proportions as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.” • Happiness: pleasure, and the absence of pain • Unhappiness: pain and absence of pleasure • Happiness is only thing that has intrinsic value. • Basic idea “Maximising happiness, minimizing pain” Second Paragraph: Innocent Bystander objection • According to the “innocent bystander” or “justice” objection to the theory, it is unfair to kill one person to save lives of many people. • For instance, “suppose a terrorist threatens Steven Harper that he/she will blow up an entire building and many people in it, unless one innocent civilian is killed”.According to utilitarianism, it is be
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