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MODR 1770B Note 3

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York University
Modes Of Reasoning
MODR 1770
Jai Chetram

MODR 1770B Note 3 Exercises Three Criteria of being a good argument - Relevancy  Fallacy of Irrelevancy committed (emotional language) - Acceptability  Fallacy of Ambiguity (faulty language) - Sufficiency  Fallacy of Presumption (prejudge something without any evidence) - Deductive argument (valid/invalid). The conclusion follows with certainty because all the statements are logically connected. (Cannot accept premise, but deny conclusion, vice versa). It’s mathematical in nature. There is a necessary relationship between the two. The truth is not subject to change. Moving from the general to the specific. - Inference is a logical operation how we draw one statement from another statement. - Inductive argument (strong/weak). Dealing with experience. The subject is argument to change. - Truth: what is in accordance with facts - Validity: the correctness of how we extract the conclusion from other statements. Argument is valid if the conclusion is correctly inferred from other statements - Soundness: Truth of the premise and the validity of the premise. - Persuasive claim is that claim is debatable. - Supported claim: the back hop to the conclusions - The conclusion is never conclusive - Contrapositive: Implication within a statement Fallacy Test - Part 1 of test: o Given 5 statements: tell him whether they’re empirical (sensory knowledge), conceptual (virtue by definition of the key terms), normative (norms, values and judgments of society), or metaphysical (they are non-verifiable). (No transcendental) - There will only be one fallacy on each question (unless otherwise indicated) Arguments - In order for an argument to be good, it has to fulfill all three criterions. - Relevancy, Acceptability, Sufficiency - Irrelevance: vanity, sympathy. One who presents reasons for the acceptance of the conclusio
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