MODR 1770B Note 3
Three Criteria of being a good argument
- Relevancy Fallacy of Irrelevancy committed (emotional language)
- Acceptability Fallacy of Ambiguity (faulty language)
- Sufficiency Fallacy of Presumption (prejudge something without any
- Deductive argument (valid/invalid). The conclusion follows with certainty
because all the statements are logically connected. (Cannot accept premise,
but deny conclusion, vice versa). It’s mathematical in nature. There is a
necessary relationship between the two. The truth is not subject to change.
Moving from the general to the specific.
- Inference is a logical operation how we draw one statement from another
- Inductive argument (strong/weak). Dealing with experience. The subject is
argument to change.
- Truth: what is in accordance with facts
- Validity: the correctness of how we extract the conclusion from other
statements. Argument is valid if the conclusion is correctly inferred from
- Soundness: Truth of the premise and the validity of the premise.
- Persuasive claim is that claim is debatable.
- Supported claim: the back hop to the conclusions
- The conclusion is never conclusive
- Contrapositive: Implication within a statement
- Part 1 of test:
o Given 5 statements: tell him whether they’re empirical (sensory
knowledge), conceptual (virtue by definition of the key terms),
normative (norms, values and judgments of society), or metaphysical
(they are non-verifiable). (No transcendental)
- There will only be one fallacy on each question (unless otherwise indicated)
- In order for an argument to be good, it has to fulfill all three criterions.
- Relevancy, Acceptability, Sufficiency
- Irrelevance: vanity, sympathy. One who presents reasons for the acceptance
of the conclusio