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Lecture 4

MODR 1760 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Ad Hominem, Fallacy


Department
Modes Of Reasoning
Course Code
MODR 1760
Professor
Hilary Davis
Lecture
4

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9/29/2011 11:18:00 AM
Fallacies Continued:
Faulty Analogy
o Compare something unknown to something known
o Useful in an argument when things being compared are
similar
o Analogies can be in explanations and are not indicative of an
argument
TEST:
Identify 2 elements being compared
Identify relevant dissimilarities (2 or 3)
Explain how those dissimilarities effect the
conclusion
Example: A nuclear-power plant is infinitely
safer than eating, because 300 people
choke to death on food a year.
o Dangers of nuclear power plant vs.
dangers of eating
Nuclear power can effect an
extreme amount of people,
while eating can effect one
person
You can reverse choking, but for
nuclear power dangers you
cannot
o The conclusion that eating is more
dangerous than nuclear power is not
valid because the effect on people is
much different.
Straw Person
o Distortion or exaggeration of the original position
o Misrepresentation of the opponents position which is easily
knocked down (like straw)
o Also when defending a position you are not supposed to
defend
o “Now my opponent believes…” “By my opponents view…”
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