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York University
MUSI 1530
Rebecca Jubis

There will be a listening part on the final exam. There are a lot of examples we listen to in class. Listening questions are contextual; Example: this song would have been performed during the 19th century in a minstrel show. Rock and Roll. 50s. and the in between years. The period that began in 1954 and went until 1958. The rock and roll revolution lasted 4 years, what made it come to the end was the in between years. Rock and roll did not start at a specific or exact time. There are a number of small bangs that created opportunity for the next series of events. We are talking about a musical culture that emerged from the black community and into the homes of white teens. Rock and Roll was a term applied in hind sight, it created a cultural music. Initially a black term for sex; was used by Alan Freed to disguise the fact that white kids were taking part in this. A social category. There are certain musical characteristics that can be defined as being rock and roll. 10 year period as a continuum. There will be a lot of contextual talk today!!!! 58-64, the first period came to an end. In 64 the Beatles and Motown created a second wave. ROCK AND ROLL (1954-1958) A. Social and Historical Context B. Technological Developments C. Changes in Music Industry D. Rock and Roll Styles these are the 4 main areas. From 1917 through the 20s and 30s we see a rapid transfer of the black community from the Deep South to the Northern urban cities. This became the bedrock that would later become rock and roll. Post war boom. After WW2, most of the parts of the world were in a state of ruin. This was a boom period for the US; one could see the increase of the working class after the Second World War. An expansion of the urban cities. The suburbs were where the white people fled to. To be considered middle-class.... The breadwinner must earn between 5,000-6,000 dollars/year. The economy of the US was flushed with money. AS a part of the entertainment industry was disposable income. After you've paid for the necessities there was enough to give to the kids as an allowance, this would be money they would use to buy what THEY wanted. This was important for the music industry. 76,000,000 in the US between 1954- 1968. 6,000,000 in Canada at the same time. BABY BOOM ERA. This was an enormous demographic. Rock and Roll was at a time when the baby boom generation were growing up and at an age to decide and rebel. Suburban life was.... When rock and roll came about the good wife's guide. 1. 76 million in US/ 10 million in Canada 2. Teenager (13-18 years old) 3. Teen identity: dress/language/behaviour rock and roll = age specific music 4 Growth of high school system 5 High School desegregation: brown VS BD. of ED. Topeka, KS (1954) Teenagers were not demonstrated until this period of time. There was either a child or an adult. Certain events such as bar mitzvahs were the crossover from child to adult. These are rituals that go back in history and you are held back before you can move on. When you turn 13 or so you begin to change your parents begin to give you privacy. When you're hitting puberty/becoming a teenager you are developing hormones. Wealth in society caused us to space out childhood to adulthood by independence of teenage hood. Before wealth in society you had to work as soon as you became old enough (13-14ish). This has dragged on from 13 to 18 and now until 28. The confusion that society is now faced with at this time was to give the term teenager. Everyone was confused at this time especially those between the ages of 13-18. At this time teenagers were "warehoused" in high schools to ensure their attendance. Rock and Roll thrived in high school culture. Rock and roll was those who were teenagers/adolescents. Teens wanted to rebel from what their parents were. They did not dress or intend to be anything like their parents. AS it remains today. Items of clothing that defined you in the 50s. Clothing industries were careful of this. Playtex created a device that was useful at this time THE TRAINING BRA. Men were presented with a car usually around the age of 16. The car was a symbol for independence at this time. To drive around in cars at this time were suggested that they were dads car; hot rods were then presented and intended for teenagers to look `cool`. In approximately 1964 the Mustang was created as for the male teenage audience which had 2 seats. Women were now moving into the workplace because of the lack of wealth. In order for these women to get around they were introduced with the Honda Civic (a car specific for women). Dinners were suggested to be made by take out options such as KFC. In 1954 an important political movement. The black community took the board of education to desegregate the schools. Finally in 1954, the Supreme Court agreed so that all schools would begin to desegregate. This was the first real challenge to Jim Crow. The Supreme Court made it so that schools had to desegregate. The KKK was underground since the 1930s. Their principle target was Irish Catholics, Jews and then black people. The FBI went after the Capone gang and also the KKK. Rock and Roll could not have come at a worse time or a better time. Rock and Roll was Rhythm and Blues and white kids were listening to this. In 1950s you were taking greater risks by being politically active unless you knew racial politics. Zelma Henderson II fought segregation in famed Kansas case. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS 1 Transistor technology 2 Vinyl technology (45 RPM and 33 1/3 LP) 3 Electric Guitar and Microphone 4 Magnetic Tape Technology Many were trying to outdo each other. 63' Cuban missal progress. They were trying to deliver weaponry from space. The space race was important for communication technology; they needed to develop more mobile and smaller technology. From the space race was the radio, the transistor radio. This allowed people to listen to the radio at night and in bed with an ear piece. This was a way of receiving all American radio stations. The disks until this point were heavy and had one song on one side and one on the other. They would cost approximately 50 cents. The most important invention at this time especially for rock and r&b culture was the tape recorder which was created by Dr. Fritz Pfeumer (Germany) called the Blattnerphone. This new technology was presented and then dropped off the face of the earth. This was because Hitler was holding onto these new technologies saying that they were the Germans and only the Germans were able to have and use them. Captain mullin of the U.S Signal Corps; went to radio Hamburg and took this technology. What they didn't know was that Hitler was giving these speeches and broadcasted for Europe to hear. He was doing this with the tape recorder. He would sent these copies to different stations and cities to have it broadcasted in 1945 Bing Crosby made a lot of money from this machine. Ampex (U.S.) cost between 5 and 10 thousand dollars. If you had this you could make recordings and start your own Independent Record Label. CHANGES IN THE MUSIC INDUSTRY 1. network television and independent radio 2 African- American Radio - WDIA, Memphis 1948 3 RADIO DJS Salesman Personality Promoter (Alan Freed - Dick Clark) 4 Creation of BMI (1939) 5 Growth of independent record labels 6 major record Companies VS indies CBS NBC STANDARD these owned dozens and dozens of radio stations throughout the US. Nearly all of this was live music that was played on TV. Network Radio put pressure on the stations to begin to move into television. Advertising. Television
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