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MUSI 1570 (1)
Lecture

1570 - Ska, Reggae, Dancehall Course Notes.docx

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Department
Music
Course
MUSI 1570
Professor
Ray Williams
Semester
Fall

Description
 Date: Tuesday September 24, 2013  Ska, Rock Steady, Reggae and Dancehall Today we are discussing the 1950‟ds. The Sound System Mobile Moving Sound System Speakers on it, 1 Turn Table, There was always a gap, between playing songs. The struggle what do with the gap, lead to rap. Toasting became popular/ sounded better than the music. Key things to know about sound system: No live music, playing records, DJ operated, playing popular music, the sound of Jamaica in 1950, they played: They didn‟t have a turntable, Minto was went for the travelers/ The sound was American Rhythm and Blues. A lot of Minto records, didn‟t even make it to the South Side. Sound System, was in South Side Kingston.  The DJ is playing American Music.  Sound Systems/ Have businesses/  They were using sound system for advertising.  The DJ was promoting things: example Joe‟s Shoes.  Motivation for Sound System/ Nothing to do with artist, Tourist, was trying to get people to shop. Who had the first?  Tom The Great Sebastian: The first successful sound system  Tom Wong: Chinese Jamaican  Plantation, brought a lot of had South Asian, and Indians. They were indenture workers.  His mother is black (African) and dad is Chinese Jamaican  He had a welding shop. Iron Works  He had the idea, to put together the system  He had a technical backgrounds.  The competitors starting copying.  ***He had DJ named Count Machuki*****  He started rhyming as the records were being changed.  First DJ to becoming a Entertainer  Count Machuki was the first to do toasting.  Tom Wong committed suicide  King Stitt in the video   Duke Reid  Had a store named: Treasure Isle Liquor store  He was cop  He had a gun, and popped it in the air. He would shoot his gun.  He had a very bad shut.  He had bullet  AT one time he had 4 or 5 sound system at the same time  He started with Bedford Trojan flatbed truck. Car Company from England. And on the back of it, would put his speakers on it.  Duke Reid had a radio show. Treasure Isle Late hour. He is promoting his business.  He had a truck liquor, beef patties,  People would look forward to the events.  It was free  It was advertising  Him being a cop would be problematic because of Rasta.  Duke Reid, mid late 1950d and early 1960‟ds.  His influence was Ska and Rocksteady  Treasure Isle  Coxsone Dodd real name: Clement Dodd.  He has appliance store.  He started a sound system: Downbeat. Sound System.  The sound system would CLASH  Sound CLASH/ The public loves it  Which end of the park is the crowd going to go too.  Duke Reid and Coxcone Dodd/ In the beginning Duke would win..  But Coxcone would win a lot in the end.  Trojan and Downbeat.  They were set up to promote Business  There is not a lot of radio/ They liked this sound system/ sound clash  it‟s a business.  all they are playing rhythm and blues,  American music. Because in the 1950‟ds rhythm blues was popular music. Prince Buster  One notable guy in the sound system: Prince Buster  Was Coxcone Bouncer.  He fell out with a lot of people  He created his own sound system  He didn‟t have the same resources as Duke Reid, and Coxcone  Duke Reid was able to secure some of the best players in Jamaica  Prince Buster, people that are making records, doesn‟t have access to the good musician  One of the musician: Jah Jerry. Was a guitar player.  Jah Jerry didn‟t know how to play guitar well.  He is very limited in his style   American R&B  spent a lot of time going to Miami. Duke Reid, Coxone Dodd and Vincent King Edwards  They would got to American to look for unique music, with a great beat, that no one has.  They didn‟t want the revivals to know what they had. It would become popular with the locals.  They would scratch away label. So no one would know the origin of the music.  Even the DJ‟s didn‟t even know the name of the song.  American Idols: Fat Dominos, Little Richard etc.  Count Machuki: Toasting  late 1950‟ds he was toasting regularly  He had a little rhyme  1950 the DJ as a star ( new phoemona)  Original DJ: Count Machuki  King Stitt aka The Ugly one.  He worked with Coxone.  The DJ‟s was popular  The R&B was fading, so they began to make their own music.   Theophilus Beckford. Internal Record Industry. ( The first)  Spin of for fading R&B music, and the need to create new music.  Easy Snappin'  1959  Became a hit with the Sound System  Recording a song in Jamaica  The music is consume by Jamaica people.   Chris Blackwell  He doesn‟t have a sound system  He lives in Jamaica  Born in England  He started Island Records.  Laurel Aitken: He was first artist in Jamaica to have some hits.  especially in England Pirate radio, they brought the music. To that medium  Helped other cultures to hear it  He sold over 1000 records,  Pirate Radio is illegal./ you have to be moving.  Great way to bring the music to British people  Laurel Aitken  Boogie in my Bones  Island Records 1959  The success encouraged Chris Blackwell to continue  1972 Bob Marley made his first money after 10 years of no money  Theophilus Beckford. They were selling well after records were done  They didn‟t have ways to get royalties  They were paid up front, but couldn‟t get money after the fact.  Work for hire system  Laurel Aitken  Hey Bartender  1960 Island Records   United Kingdom and Jamaica Helped bring the music to globally  Chris Blackwell, helped propel the music.  Derrick Morgan He is Blind right now Still performing The first bob Marley out of Jamaica He became popular due to song competition And he wins Early 1960‟ds most popular artist in Jamaican They saw record sell, could be way to make passive reunion Derrick Morgan Fat Man 1960 Smiths He was first popular artist, very successful. Known around the island Owen Gray Jamaican Boogle Woogie Star He sang in the church Won a contestant Blackwell proved you have to think bigger than the sound system Owen Gray Jenny Lee 1960 Island Records  Prince Buster The wild card   Doesn‟t have access to money  He employee the services of Count Ossie  He was poor drummer was the hills  Folkes Brothers  Oh Carolina  1960/ Buster  was very popular with the Locals  Class 3 Ska – descendent of Jamaican R&B (50s) – strong signature, that music came to Jamaica by sound systems and it faded in America, Jamaicans created their own version - popular music came from this and it was copied Eric Morris, Owen Gray, Derrick Morgan, Jimmy Cliff, Desmond Dekker, Millie Small, Vincent „King‟ Edwards, The Skatalites, The Maytals, Justin Hinds & The Dominoes, The Wailers - record business established in Jamaica during the 60s – in Jamaica and outside of Jamaica to England - ‟62 – Dr.No James Bond filmed in Jamaica - introduced a whole new scene of Jamaica, tourism, - Carole Joan Crawford = Miss Jamaica & Miss World 1963 - Jamaica‟s contingent includes Byron Lee, Carol Crawford, Prince Buster, Jimmy Cliff and Monty Morris – in one contingent - Convince the government of Jamaica to fund a contingent of artists that would go to the World Fair  exposé of Jamaican music WHERE DOES THE WORD SKA COME FROM? - This allowed for American influence and market for Jamaican music - Jamaica was spreading around the world as a brand - 1962 – Indepedence – was a colony of England - Jamaica is able to run its affairs - Would become “Singapore” – economic growth, exports (minerals) - Small population, theoretically could have become an economic superpower - Rural Jamaica – moved to the city (problem), city of Kingston couldn‟t handle this - No school space, hospital, housing space - Euphoria of Indepedence – Kingston = deteriorating - Jamaica feels „on top of the world‟ and has a lot of potential ERIC „MONTY‟ MORRIS - Humpty Dumpty (1959) - early days of music and recording - Not a lot of money to be made, but hired - “glass class”? - made for Sound system, made for sale - Prince Buster starts to sell records for his sound system - This could be a business - Still sounds like R&B Nursery Rhyme!!! – Once there was an old lady who lived in a shoe She had so many children she didn’t know what to do Gave them some broth without any bread Whip theym soundly and send them to bed Who-Oh Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall Humpty Dumpty had a great fall All the King’s horses and all the King’s men Couldn’t get Humpty together again Woh-oh MUSIC COMES FROM AMERICA - trying to do American R&B, very slow, but R&B is faster than this song - Jerry adding a simple „tcha‟ beat - Still R&B, but less recognizable - This song is a remix of the original song - Prince Buster – inspired Ska, crew of musicians were not the best and they did whatever they did - People liked it and it became its own thing - 1961 – music is drifted from American R&B OWEN GRAY - came from the Alpha School for boys – Skatalites came from this school - school for juvenile deliquents – parents couldn‟t deal with their children, disowned, didn‟t have parents - school was disciplined and they had a music program (waltz, R&B - singer who achieved recognition and stardom for doing something other than Calypso - Gray is very well known – one of the best singers, did a lot of recording (for everybody) - Artists these days because they‟re working for „hire‟, you sing for everyone - You don‟t sign everybody or a lock on anyone (generally speaking) - Came from Buster, but seized upon by everyone else - Jah Jerry – off beat strum, sang loud, very danceable music - Credit for Jamaicanizing – American music - Ska to Reggae - With Prince Buster Jezebel (1962 Studio one) Youre a Jezebel and you come from Hell Youre a Jezebel and you come from Hell You‟re a Jezebel and you tink you‟re doing well The other night you started a fight Jezebel Youre a Jezebel and you come from Hell Get out of my sight I‟m over my spell Jezebel You‟re still fooling around with another man Jezebel You‟re still fooling around with another man Jezebel Now I‟m all alone you can got to hell Jezebel You‟re fooling around Jezebel Drop dead now Jezebel Get out of my sight Jezebel Midnight Track (1962 – Island) - sound of independent Jamaica, dancing, Ska is loved by uptown - Uptown Jamaica – those that have money, live up on the hill, upper class - Ska music is local, on record – Uptown have a record player at home and they love it - Downtown people – love it because they believe Jamaica will be on top of the world You put me in the middle of the midnight track Cos you want the train to run over my back You can‟t kill me, you can‟t kill me Well I‟m hard as a rock You keep on running down the midnight track I guess that‟s why you wanted to tear me down Because you wanted to go on running around You can‟t kill me, you can‟t kill me Now I‟m the heart of the pack And now you‟re running down the midnight track Why should I worry when my mind clear There are times when the burden lifts too oh yeah You can‟t kill me, you can‟t kill me So please get of my back And now you‟re running down the midnight track - Prince Buster‟s music and quality isn‟t good – he works really fast - Mixing music as they go, his methodology calls for speed - Come out with many songs and exploit them for as long as you can - Living in Jamaica in 1963 – you would hear Midnight Track many times – BIG HIT - Song was made to sell records, not to listen on a sound system - Jimmy Cliff – First International Jamaican Superstar - Leslie Kong – icecream man, business man - James Chambers – got the name Jimmy Cliff (stage man) – dreaming of going to Kingston (country boy trying to go to Kingston to make it big) - made a song called Dearest Beverley (about a fake girlfriend) - Leslie Kong had an icecream truck named Beverley - Cliff wanted to show Kong his song, make this into a record - Seized the opportunity to buy time in the industry, knew people to start up a band - Dearest Beverley – big hit - Started of Beverley Records – biggest record by the 1970‟s - Most powerful man of the Jamaican industry, become a superproducer that hit the international stage - Brought a string section from outside the country - Leslie Kong – didn‟t want you to record for anyone else My dearest Beverley come home And let me happy once more You‟ve been away for so long And all because I‟ve done you wrong You know I love you Beverley Can‟t do without Beverley So baby please come home And let me know that you‟re mine I know now that your love is true And came from no one else but you But you‟d have been such a fool To let you drift away from me Beverley Beverley Beverley Beverley - records were cheap to make and wholesale them for 50 cents, better than drugs, selling icecream - Leslie Kong wants to do more, it‟s the time if you had any kind of talent to get in the business - End of the decade (1970s) really competitive later - If you won a contest (first to third) – somebody would want you record with them and get on a label - Jimmy Cliff writes song about Hurricane Hattie – metaphor/love song - Successful song - Miss Jamaica - even more successful song - Kong had no experience in music, no skill in music, minimal effort but he made a PILE of cash for doing very little - organized orchestra, booked studio, administrative job Hurricane Hattie Though we‟re over, dear My lovely I‟m coming over Though we‟re over, dear My lovely I‟m coming over And this time I‟ll be like Hurricane Hattie You, Yes, You Gonna treat you right You, yes, you Gonna treat you right So in spite I‟ll be like Hurricane Hattie - quality of song is much better, record sells - if records run out it is easy to buy more and make more (easy to make money) - Household name of Jamaica = Jimmy Cliff - Radio - Derek Morgan might have been able to compete with this - People in the CArribean start to hear this music, when record is made, each island wants money and the music is spreading andhte local music is propagating - This sounds really Ska like - Ska – doesn‟t mean anything Miss Jamaica (1962 – Beverley’s) Carole jOan Crawford – Miss Jamaica & Miss World 1963 Roses are red, violets are blue Believe me, I love you Let‟s not be apart „Cause you‟re the rose of my heart And a-sweet rose, you are my queen You‟re my Miss Jamaica My Miss Jamica You‟re my Miss Jamaica I‟m cronwing you myself Although you may not Have such a favulous hsape To suit the rest of the world But you do suit me And that‟s all I want to know I need not know nothing more -focus he‟s putting into his craft of singing and song writing Music is getting much better DERRICK MORGAN - -recording for Prince Buster, ended up recording the biggest song “Housewives Choice” - Leslie Kong = Chinese Jamaican, - might think he‟s not a real Jamaican, doesn‟t belong in Jamaica - A lot of resentment for the “Chinaman” – he would be ruling - Derrick Morgan – he‟s with Leslie Kong (one way door, he locks you in there) - Kong stole Derrick Morgan away from Prince Buster (according to Buster) - Morgan says Kong pays me with bills, Buster pays me with coins - Psychologically there is a huge difference in payment - Kong pays more for Morgan - This brings more resentment - Wasn‟t called Housewives Choice, originally “you don‟t know” - So many housewives phoned the radio station asked to play it again and they called it again Duet with Patsy Todd & Derrick Ska Era – TOP THREE BIGGEST SONGS done by Leslie Kong Feud: Prince Buster vs Leslie Kong Housewives Choice You don‟t know how much I love you Or else darling youw ouldn‟t have made me cry Hush darling, you should know I love you Cos my heart dear is trembling like a leaf Yeah, Ye-Eh-Aah - Buster says Kong stole this song, accusations are there as Buster says he was working on this song first with Morgan - Blackhead Chinaman – mocks Derrick Morgan and Leslie Kong - Answer with another song - Buster runs feud - Government interceded to put a stop to this feud - Who is singing Buster‟s song – tension Forward March (second national anthem – like a theme song) - Leslie Kong is controlling the independence day - People want to kill Kong, Kong is successful - 50 000 records sold ALL THIS IS STILL HAPPENING IN 1962 - ICECREAM MAN OWNS THE SCENE - Gather together be brothers and sisters We‟re independent Join hands to hands children started to dance We‟re independent Don‟t be sad and gloomy The Lord is still with you Because your time has come When you have to have your fun Go make yur run Brother & sisters give joy and praise to Mr. Alexander Brother & sisters give joy and praise to Mr. Manley Don‟t be sad and gloomy The Lord is still with you Because your time has come When you have to have your fun Go make your run Why didn‟t any other person make songs about Jamaican independence the way Kong did with Forward March Why is there resentment towards Kong? - Kong is a contractor, Coxen, Buster they‟re all contractors - All he did was being smart, seize opportunities - Kong doesn‟t stop, he comes with another artist DESMOND DEKKER - Israelites (1969) - Monumentally huge song in America - Most identifiable voices of Rocksteady - Was an orphan - Seminal figure in the development of reggae music and was one of Jamaica‟s most popular figures - Desmond Dekker does not record with anyone else but Kong for his entire career - Israelites recorded with badn the Aces – chart topper, first gold record ever issue in Jamaica - There is no “Coxen Camp “ or “Dupri Camp” - BUT there is a “Kong Camp” - Kong is a flash in the pang, why would people go to Kong? Lyrics Get up in the morning, bake beans.. Like Jimmy Cliff, Desmond Dekker didn‟t record with anyone else Honor Your Father and Your Mother (1962) Honor your mother and your father That your days may be long, on the land Children obey our parents and the law This is the law, of the prophets Honor your mother and your father That your days may be long, on the land Children obey your parents an the law This is the law, of the prophets Love your parents as how you love yourself Do onto others as they would do to you - Kong‟s music sounds refined and of high quality music MILLIE SMALL - Teenager female, R&B – “my boy lollipop” track from the US - Producers were looking for were not famous R&B songs and remake it in Jamaica as Ska music - Millicent Small – recordeing in her teens for Sir Coxone Dodds Studio One label with Roy Panton (Roy & Millie) - “We‟ll Meet” - Wtht to England in 1963 by Chris Blackwell - 4 recording of “My Boy Lollipop” - became #1 in UK - Millie Small – big deal because she‟s up against the Beatles, the Supremes, Ray Charles, Elvis Presley, Nat King Cole, Frank Sinatra - Everyone putting out records in the 60s - Her record was bigger than all the other record - Bigger feat to hit #2 in US (competition is stiffer there) - 7 million copies over time - perceived a one-hit wonder novelty arists and only made the top 40 one more time „Sweet William‟ - Blackwell – U2 My Boy Lollipop (1964 – Island) My boy Lollipop Oyu made my heart go giddy-up You are as sweet as candy Your‟e my sugar dandy Ha ho, my boy Lollipop Never ever leave me Because it would grieve me My heart old m so I love you, I love you, I love you so That I want you to know I need you, I need you, I need you so And I”ll never let you go My boy Lollipop You make my ehart go giddy up You set my world on fire You are my one desire, My boy Lollipop, my boy Lollipop Video of performing in Canada - Opened doors – some people had never of Ska music before, they want to hear more - Real opprotunites for everyone to push the Ska music everywhere - Island Records – Chris Blackwell - Song is from US, recorded in the UK, artist is Jamaican - Clean recording , competent musicians in UK THE WAILERS 1964 – Studio One - includes Bob Marley, Bunny Livinston (Bunny Wailer), Peter Tosh - recorded for Coxsone Dodd - Took TEN years to make records before they get their first „coin‟ - 1972 - post 1962 music - Wailers are not Rastafarians - Euphorian Jamaica is still there - 1966 – euphoria is virtually gone, Jamaica‟s economic situation is very bad - Why is the economic situation bad? - Fertile land Simmer Down Simmer down, you lickin' too hot, so Simmer down, soon you'll get dropped, so Simmer down, can you hear what I say Simmer down, that why won't you, why won't you, why won't you simmer down Simmer down. Long time people dem used to say What sweet nanny goat a go run him belly, so Simmer down, oh control your temper Simmer down, for the battle will be hotter Simmer down, can you hear what I say Simmer down, oh that I'm a leaving you today Simmer down. /sax solo/ Simmer down, oh you hear what I say Simmer down, a that I'm leaving you today Simmer down, can you hear what I say Simmer down. Chicken merry, hawk de near and when him de near, you must beware, so Simmer down, oh control your temper Simmer down, for the battle will be hotter Simmer down, and you won't get no supper Simmer down, and you know you bound to suffer Simmer down, simmer, simmer, simmer right down Simmer down, like you never did before Simmer down, oh, oh, oh Simmer down, can you hear what I say Simmer down, you lickin' too hot so Simmer down, and you know soon you'll get dropped, so Simmer down, why won't you simmer, simmer down Simmer down, simmer down, simmer down Simmer down, simmer, simmer down Simmer down, oh simmer, simmer down Simmer down, like you never did before... - Simmer down became an instant success as the Wailers first record - Reggae was hard to digest – downtown music - Ska Era = everybody‟s music, Jamaica‟s going to be number one in the world - Just called the Wailer‟s not “Bob Marley‟s” song - They made no money from this number one record - One producer pays attention to them: LESLIE KONG - Wailers did not stay with Leslie Kong - What he did and didn‟t‟ do with this tapes was extremely important to his life Class 4 – Stars of Ska – Jamaican Music to the World  SKA becomes big in 1962 – Year of Independence for Jamaicans  Sound system – dual purpose for records  1962 – first Jamaican superstars – DEREK MORGAN  “Bob Marley of Ska” – Morgan  successful colony of Jamaica  Artists: Eric Morris, Owen Gray, Derrick Morgan, Jimmy Cliff, Desmond Dekker, Milli Small, The skatelites, Toots & The Maytals, Justin Hinds & Dominoes, The Wailers!  A lot of migration and leaving from Jamaica to other countries – England, Canada  WILBURN THEORDORE COLE – aka Stranger Cole – 1945 in Kingston, Jamaica  Stranger – did not resemble anyone in family  Ska – Indepedence (1962 to 1965) – upbeat nature of Ska  Rough & Tough – 1962 Dutchess (Treasure Isle)  Produced by Duke Reid – financially produce the actual record  Duke Reid was not usually there when Cole made his music - detached producer  Rough & Tough - 1962 Who are you that I should be mindful of You run for refuge and were rescued that‟s a fact Then why lie and try to bite the hand that feeds oyu Yes, the good you do lives after you You can puff, huff and puff „til you burst It shall be rough, rough and tough on your side So stop lying, don‟t try to bite the hands that feed you Cos the good you lives after you JUSTIN HINDS & THE DOMINOES – Popular Ska Icon  Big Ska artists  He recorded for Duke Reid  Began singing at bars in Ocho Rios in the late 50‟s and early 60‟s  Duke Reid was successful in the early periods of Ska  When music became more „reggae‟, domination by Coxsone? And Leslie Kong Carry Go Bring Come – 1963 This carry go bring come my dear, brings misery This carry go bring come tmy dear, brings misery Your‟e going from town t town making disturbances It‟s time you stopped doing those things, you old Jezebel The meek shall inthehrit the Earth, you ould Jezebel It needs no light to see you‟re making disturbances  Orchestra had a lot of horn – trumpet, brass, hornet, saxophone, etc  The sound of this music/area  Band members and educators were horn player  Sound of Ska is dominated by these musicians  By 1965 a lot of the musicians moved and new musicians played piano, bass, Is there an explanation for the migration of Jamaican after Independence to England/Canada?  Stranger Cole does not have a band – plays with whatever band is there  Ska – very skilled network, know jazz, hired to sit in studio for day, when you‟re finished you‟re out and the next musicians come in  Like a factor of musicians recording THE MAYTALS  Leader = Frederick “Toots” Hibbert, other members: Nathaniel “Jerry” Mathias and Raleigh Gordon  Believe in harmonies – blending voices together  Key figures in Reggae music  Jamaican music and American „do-wop‟ music  First gropu to use the word „Reggae‟ in a song title with Leslie Kong-produced “Do the Reggay”  2000 records, some records have sold 5000 copies  a lot of money  formed in the early 60‟s when Ska was hot – rep for a strong, well-blended voices  Hibbert is compared to by Otis Redding  System has not evolved to have royalties and contracts  Six & Seven Books of Moses – by The Maytals (not Toots &..)  HIbbert Loved to smoke marijuana/Ganja  Busted in the 60‟s – he wrote the song a jail and made his most famous song (Six & Seven Books of Moses) Six & Seven Books of Moses – 1963 Produced by: Coxsone Dodd The six and seven book He wrote them all From Genesis & Exodus, Leviticus & Numbers Deuteronomy & Joshua, Judges & Ruth Yeah and the six and seven books He wrote them all Jezebel: a shameless or immoral woman Deuteronomy: book of Bible  Cheap to make a record - paper stuck on plastic disc  Record business = fantastic, if someone breaks a record they have to buy it again  How to make records – pellets (black substances) –  Make pellets in machine 3. Select stamper of required recording (always check for imperfections) 3. Select Labels 4. Assembly 0 remove vinyl tube and place between the plates 5 Pressing – once assembled, place in machine and pressing can commence John & James - 1964 – The Maytals Produced by Vincent Chin Oh John James went down to London town He want to be a member if him can But I know what I know He never wore them tight shirt before He was sitting in a mansion smoking a big cigar But I know what I know He never wore them tight shirt before Al I want sir just put me among some girls He said, “All I want sir just, put me among some girls But I know what I know He The SKATELITES  the biggest group of Ska  start in middle of 1964 and end in 1965  Ska = created by fusing Boogie –Woogie Blues, R&B, Jazz, Mento, Calypso and African rhythms  ERIC DEAN – important person, band leader in Northern Jamaica (tourism)  Playing music since early 50‟s  Makes connection with Alpha School – boys Catholic school run by nuns  School for juvenile delinquents, troublesome  Some kind of house/domestic problem that is causing for children to need behaviourial, disciplinarian issues – sometimes circumstantial siutaitons  Nuns were famous for discipline  It‟s regimented – wake up at certain time, chores, meals are served, recreation is scripted  Boot camp – residential school  MUSIC PROGRAM in these schools  All instruments were brass (bugles, horns, trumpets), pianos – learning classical – Waltz, but also Ska type music  Every „Dean‟ would employ children from these schools when they got older because they were musically talented  Ska – first truly Jamaican music – Bob Marley, Peter Tosh, Toots and the Maytals, Jimmy Cliff, Alton Ellis, Ken Boothe – coincided with Jamaica‟s independence in 1962  The Skatelites consisted of members: Tommy McCook, Rolando Alphonso, Johnny Moore, Lester Sterling, Don Drummond, Lloyd Knibb, Lloyd Brevett, Jerry Haynes, and Jackie Mittoo  Worked together in 1963 and band formed “The Skatelites” in May 1964  Alpha Boys School – founded in 1980  Guns of Navarone – 1964 Studio 1  Produced by Coxsone Dodd  Technical level – single was not the band‟s best, solos weren‟t top-notch, but „sheer exuberance‟ of this number made it one of the best selling Ska singles in history  A lot of song titles came from movies  Theme song to the 1961 flick of the same name – a WWII espionage flick that showed soldiers‟ courage and sacrifice in the face of great odds  Jamaicans knew about courage and sacrifice  more to offer: overwhelming optimism and self believe – exuded 3 years after independence (‟65)  Skatelites – express a love of sound that permeates Jamaica (thru music)  „A master piece of mood and genre‟ – single handedly defines Ska in most people‟s mind  Ska music – the Jamaicans of all stripes liked this music „dreamy‟ – ton of people from country side coming to city of Kingston  Chasing dreams – Jamaica‟s going to be great and wonderful  Don Drummond – some say he had bipolar disorder, definitely mentally ill  He wrote a lot of songs that were significant pieces for the Skatelites  Unusual in his social skills  Life hovered between eccentricity and manic depression  Mental condition was not helped by ganja use, pressures of fame w/o gain – pushed Drummond over the edge  Jan 1965 – Anita Mahfood (aka Margarita) – girlfriend was killed at their home: murder  He blacked out and didn‟t know what happen  He was charged and convicted of killing his girlfriend who was a Rumba dancer, exotic dancer  Some people believed he was innocent  Not put in jail – put in mental asylum, died in the asylum „tortured soul‟  Big driving force in the Skatelites Man in the Streets Skatelites, 1964 – Studio 1  Tommy McCook created The Supersonics  Roland Alphonso – The Soul Brothers - Phoenix City, 1965 “Tuenico)  Justin Yap  Not enough access to schools, services (60 000 people in Jamaica according to British surveys)  This music didn‟t mesh with the moods of the time  1966 – there are tangible signs of things not being right – strikes, people not getting paid in civil service, distruptive for regular people  Police want to go on strike  Uptake of crime in Jamaica  mid60‟s – violent Election  horn players and orchestra, second half of 60‟s – many of them leave Jamaica  They took horn domination of music with them and left Jamaica  Alphonso created Soul Brothers but he and Cook left Jamaica  People who are left with the music industry have different musical skills  Some Jamaicans believe this new music is weird, don‟t know hwat they‟re singing about, people don‟t know what ot make of them  They have different hair – Rastafari  Arrested – you have to get a haircut when you get arrested  cops loved to bust with people with strange hair  Humiliation to go back to hometown with a bald head  Soul Brothers = Roland with “Dizzy” Johhny Moore, Lloyd Brevett, Jackie Mittoo, Bunny Williams and Wallin Cameron on guitar  1967 – metamorphosed into Soul Vendors  “You Trouble Me” –-> Rock Steady  Roland recorded for Leslie Kong, Bunny Lee and Coxsone Dodd Phoenix City – 1965 Tuneico Produced by Justin Yap  Up beat music  Can hear brass instruments – trumpet, tambourine?, hornet, drumming  Only lyrics “Phoenix City!”  WHEN DID MUSIC STOP HAVING LYRICS?  Anomaly – Prince Buster: he just won‟t go away  He‟s trying to produce Ska  Known for “off beat music” – he doesn‟t have the high quality music  How is Prince busters‟ Ska different than Guns of Navarone, Stranger Cole etc Al Capone – 1965  car sounds on a road?  Skatting/beatboxing the tcha beat  Band is playing with each other  Saxophone, trumpet, horn with the same back beat of „tcha‟ sounds  This song has lyrics  TOP 20 UK POP CHART  New beat and this song has lyrics about Al Capone – didn‟t hurt the song at all and made it popular in the UK Al Capone guns don‟t hurt you! Don‟t call me Scarfae My name is Capone C-A-P-O-N-E, Capone Al Capone My name is Capone  Prince Buster is signing deals in the UK  Almost an accidental artist – successful songs lead to another song Hard Man Fi Dead – 1965 Prince Buster Produced by Prince Buster You pick him up, you lick him down Him bounce right back, What a hard man fe dead! (Hard man fe dead!) You pick him up, you lick him down Him bounce right back, What a hard man fe dead! (Hard man fe dead!) Them seh, the cat's got a nine life But this man got ninety-nine life, cause... Them pick him up, you lick him down, Him bounce right back, What a hard man fe dead! (Hard man fe dead!) Them boil one pot of chocolate tea. And all the fried fish they caught in the sea They also got six quart o' rum Saying that they waiting for the nine night to come The last time I heard them say That this man was dead (this man was dead) They find him black eyes And them lay it all upon his head (the man was dead) Now the procession leads to the cemetery The man all a howl, Don't you bury me, You pick him up, you lick him down Him bounce right back, What a hard man fe dead! (Hard man fe dead, ... hard man fe dead) /Instrumental interlude/ Them boil one cup of chocolate tea And all the fried fish they caught in the sea They aso got six quart o' rum Saying that they waiting for the nine night to come The last time I heard them say That this man was dead (this man was dead) They find him black eyes And them lay it all upon his head ('pon his head) You should see them goin' to the cemetery The old man holla howl, Won't you bury me? Them drop the box and run, What a whole lot o' fun! What a hard man fe dead! (hard man fe dead) You pick him up, you lick him down Him bounce right back, What a hard man fe dead! (Hard man fe dead!) You pick him up, you lick him down Him bounce right back, I am a hard man fe dead! (Hard man fe dead! ... Hard man fe dead!)  More popular in England than anyone else  King of Ska = Prince Buster  Bigger in England than Skatelites  He‟s singing about something – lyrics  The kind of lyrics = not everyone would write the way he did  He‟s not going anywhere  No one reallys knows what‟s going to come is RASTAFARIANISM music  Rasta = smoke weed, don‟t eat meat  Buster = Muslim  Duke Reid = cop  Difficult in the late 60‟s  For him to say “Ja astafari‟ = not believable, he doesn‟t have that conviction  Hate relationship between Rastafarians and Cops  Duke Reid hates Rastafarians and even if he‟s not a cop anymore he does not embrace the Rastafarians and he‟s going ot have a hard time with Rastas  Coxsone = doesn‟t believe in anything, „whatever‟ „idc‟ I‟m a business man  If you want to make a song, come in and let‟s produce  Leslie Kong = no religion, „religion is money‟  Neither producers care about the Rasta movement and they produce with them  Reid and Buster have to carry the Rasta movement  They have to take Rocksteady towards the Rasta movement  Late 60‟s Treasure Isle – the Rasta‟s came  Underground in the 65‟ anti British, anti monarchy  Late 60‟s people started to believe in the Rastafarian movement  People who moved to Kingston and they found out that Kingston has nothing for them, but they‟re here and they want to say  Philosophy of West has given them nothing – Britain has given nothing to them  Nothing in the education system for us  We have to redefine who we are – Jamaica is not a place, we have to go back to where we came from to remember equality  We have to go back to Africa – Afro-centric, King in Africa – „God‟  Not pointing to England or US  Cops = Babylon, enforce the laws from the Crown (England)  Cops are the – antichrist  Lord Tanamo = emcee for the Skatelites I’m in the Mood for Ska – 1965 Studio 1 Produced by Coxsone Dodd I'm in the mood for love Simply because you're near me Funny but when you're near me I'm in the mood for love Heaven is in your eyes Bright as the stars we're under Oh, is it any wonder I'm in the mood for love? Why stop to think of whether Each little dream I pray We'll put our hearts together Now we are one, I'm not afraid If there's a cloud above If it should rain we'll let it Oh, but tonight forget it I'm in the mood for love Why stop to think of whether Each little dream I pray We'll put our hearts together Now we are one, I'm not afraid If there's a cloud above If it should rain we'll let it Oh, but tonight forget it I'm in the mood for love Simply because you're near me Funny but when you're near me I'm in the mood for love Heaven is in your eyes Bright as the stars we're under Oh, is it any wonder I'm in the mood for love? Why stop to think of whether Each little dream I pray We'll put our hearts together Now we are one, I'm not afraid If there's a cloud above If it should rain we'll let it Oh, but tonight forget it I'm in the mood for love Why stop to think of whether Each little dream I pray We'll put our hearts together Now we are one, I'm not afraid If there's a cloud above If it should rain we'll let it Oh, but tonight forget it I'm in the mood for love Lecture 4 – October 15, 2013  Stepping stone from Ska to Reggae = Rocksteady  Lasts for a year  Peak popularity is what is being discussed  Rock Steady is dominant in Jamaica for a year  Rocksteady differs from Ska  The tempo is slower and more relaxed  The walking bass line is heavier and more melodic style  Guitars and piano replaced trumpets and saxophones from the Ska era  The dominant musicians in this era are playing piano, guitairs, there is an absent in horn players  Those players have migrated  Repeated riffs were played using just a few chords  The lyrics were often about poverty and social problems  Dances performed to rocksteady were more relaxed than the Ska dances  The Ska-styleback beat and the emphasis on the off-beat carried over into Rock Steady  Difference between Rocksteady and Ska  Tempo significantly slower than Ska  Rocksteady bass is melodic  Ass & Gutair ascent, Drums diminish  Keyboards ascend, Horns descend  Orchestra size diminish  Musicians have to play differently and the horns aren‟t there  Lyrics ascened, music diminish  Soul influence ascend, R&B diminish  Song begin to reflect social conscience  Identifies with „Rude Boy‟  3 pretenders who started Rock Steady: Alton Ellis (made a song called Rocksteady) – 1967  Prof says he is not the first person to sing a Rocksteady song  Hopeton Lewis had a song a year before that was Rocksteady  Derrick Harriott as well, and Ken Boothe  Rocksteady arose when young people from the Jamaican countryside were flooding in theurban ghettos of Kingston (places like Riverton City, Greenwich Town, Trench Town)  People are unapologetic, aren‟t Black nationalists, don‟t want to go back to Africa  These people don‟t want to do reggae music  Dupri = impediment is that he is a police officer  Prince Buster = impediment is that he converted to Islam  1965/66 – problems occur because of the influx of all the people that came to the city from the countryside  too many people in Northern Jamaica – congregate in the „bad‟ areas = Trench town, it is like publc housing  Government having a hard time making ends meet, paying its civil servants, cops aren‟t getting paid  Trenchtown – built around a central courtyard with communal cooking and toilet facilities  Standpipe for water, but not sewage system  Fertile ground for philosophy that was underground since the 1930s = Rastafarianism  People want music to be reflecting something that isn‟t so exuberant and is closer to reality  1965  Skatelites – dispersed, most of them not even in Jamaican anymore  Vacuum for new things to emerge and new musicians  Lynn Tait – formed a group Lynn Tait & the Jets, guitar player  He had perfect pitch – Can distinguish a note just by hearing it  Jackie Mittoo – organist in Skatelites, he formed many groups and he played on anyone‟s record  That‟s the change in the music, simply because the horn players are gone!  Lynn Tait is from Guyana and came to Jamaica in the late 60s  He would play the top and lower strings in a syncopated manner  Definitive guitar playing = „chicken picking‟ – attempt to reproduce on the instrument the bubbling sound of snare drums  Jackie Mittoo – Jamaican piano player  Was a professional musician  Hopeton Lewis – baritone player – mixture of gospel and soul elements helped the set the template for early Rock Steady  Song Take it Easy – certain guitar playing that waslike Lynn Tait  First Rocksteady song- closely related to Ska, but this is slowing down  Similar to Prince Buste created something different, but relative to R&B Take it Easy (1966, Federal Records) Take your time, take your time, take your time No need to worry Take it easy, take it easy , take it easy No need to worry No slippin', no slidin', no bumpin', no borin' [Incomprehensible] I ride into town If you fall from the race, it's no disgrace Just pick yourself from off the ground Take your time, take it easy, take your time No need to worry Take it easy, take it easy , take it easy No need to worry For the road is rough And don't you, don't you, ever get stuck But take your time, take it easy, take your time No need to worry, yeah, no, no, no, no, no Take it easy, take it easy , take it easy No need to worry Take your time, take your time, take your time No need to worry For the road is rough And don't you, don't you, ever get stuck Take your time, take it easy, take you time No need to worry (No matter worry yourself) Take your time, take it easy, take your time No need to worry (No matter worry yourself) Take your time, take it easy No need to worry (No matter worry yourself)  Derrick Morgan believes he started Rocksteady music and he hooked up with „ice cream man”: Leslie Kong  Successful song  Tougher than Tough – 1966 (Beverley’s) Rudies in court, now boys, rudies in court Rudies in court, now boys, rudies in court Order! - Now, this court is in session, And I order all you rude boys to stand ! You're brought her by a verdict for shooting and raping, Now tell me, rude boys, what have you to say for yourselves ? Your honour, Rudies don't fear, Rudies don't fear no boys, rudies don't fear, Rudies don't fear no boys, rudies don't fear, Rougher than rough, tougher than tough Strong like lion, we are iron Rudies don't fear no boys, rudies don't fear, Rudies don't fear no boys, rudies don't fear :/ Rudies are free yeah boys, rudies are free Rudies are free yeah boys, rudies are free (Court Adjorned)  Few rudeboys, at least one in each town  He sat around and slept, but he didn‟t have a job  They dressed well, lived in a concrete house  People feared the rude boy  Police just accepted the rdue boys  Semi-organized crime, control that turf  High crime in these areas – rude boy thing becomes popular to the public  It becomes a fad in Rocksteady, the word „rude‟ is prevalent  Government is concerned because they are glorifying their behaviorur  A lot of rude boys went to jail  Ernest Wilson and Peter Austin – formed the Claredonians  Freedie McGregor joined this group too  The Claredonians became one of the most successful Ska and Rocksteady music Rude Bo Gone A Jail (1966 – Studio One) ooo wee oo weee rude boy gone a jail, ooo wee oo weee, a jail you couldn‟t go But now oyu gone a jail Look at you forty years of it Lord Going around saying you‟re a Rude boy You say that you never go to jail God was so rude that you cannot fail Poor Rude Boy … NO HORN  Ken Boothe claims to have started Rock steady  Some men can‟t go into reggae so they go into “love is rock‟ music  Booth converts to Rastafarianism = but some people like Boothe can‟t fully convert into Rastafarianism  Everything I Own (1970s produced by Leslie Kong on Beverleys‟)  Biggest records, song was huge, song that launched the Love is Rock  The Train is coming (1966 – Studio One) I say the train is coming baby I say the train is coming now, I say the train is coming baby I say the train is coming now So long I‟ve been waiting, waiting for you Now the time has come when it‟s been me and you I say the train is coming baby I say the train is coming now, now now now I say the train is coming baby And I‟m leaving on the train Every day I pray for this little hour Now the time has come and I want you to stand by me Because the rain is coming baby And we are leaving on the train  Goal is to become better singers and they aspire to be American singers  In the beginning the lyrics is very important  Using music as a vehicle to convey these messages, crusades to spread this word  Different type of artists, these artists can‟t identify  They don‟t understand why people are making music and record labels  The Paragons = Garth Evans, Bob Andy, Junior Meenz and Leroy Stamp  1960s hit = The Tide is High  there is a market for love songs „boys meets girl‟ etc  they want these songs so they will becomemuscians that have tis kind of music  John Hope becomes the King of LoveR Rock  He had records in the top ten  Rocksteady = non Rastafarian Happy Go Lucky Girl (1966) – treasure Isle Ah aahaha what can I dO? Imagine how many pride you‟ve broke Imagine how many prides you‟ve stole Everyone in town knows about you Happy go lucky girl Thel ife iyou livei sn‟t too good  Alton Ellis “Girl I got a Date”  Studio time = 2 million people and 3 million singers  Every single person is singer Rocksteady (1967) – Trasure island DesmondDekkher  Jumped rude Bosy organization  Further cenentug,problem = Leslie kong artists  They a erecord for me Rudy Got Soul 1967 – Beverley Rudy got soul Cuase when I sing my song, Iyou‟ve got to move along because Rudy got, Rudy got sould The loser (1967) _ Crystal Many people claiming to be the starter of Rocksteady music Research on your own – Who released the first Rocksteady music? Support it with some sort of evidence FOLK TRADITIONS – R&B & MENTO, SOUND SYSTEMS, SKA, ROCKSTEADY, REGGAE, ROOTS DJ TOASTING – RAP, DUB, DANCEHALL WEEK 9 – REGGAE 1  Migration away from Jamaica = a factor in the evolution of local music  The Jamaicans – Tommy Cowan, Norris Weir, Martin Williams  Singing group, distinction – identify themselves as singers  They covered songs, harmonized, typically groups  Reggae people are crusaders, preachers, sending a message  Lyrics are more important that the craft of singing  They won a contest and they had this huge hit called “Ba Ba Boom” (1967)  Best tracks = Dedicate My Song to You and Black Girl Song Title: Ba Ba Boom Artist: The Jamaicans Year: 1967 Label: Treasure Isle Producer: Duke Reid Everybody get ready It's time to rocksteady It's ba ba boom time, yes it is Don't lose the beat, now Just dip your hip, now It's festival fire, listen here You hear the people saying Boom boom, ba ba boom boom Boom boom festival Boom boom, ba ba boom boom Boom boom festival Boom boom, ba ba boom boom Boom boom festival Boom boom, ba ba boom boom People are dancing Teenagers romancing It's ba ba boom time, listen here Freddie get ready Come do the rocksteady It's ba ba boom time, listen here You hear the people saying Boom boom, ba ba boom boom Boom boom festival Boom boom, ba ba boom boom Boom boom festival Boom boom, ba ba boom boom Boom boom festival Boom boom, ba ba boom boom People are dancing Teenagers romancing It's ba ba boom time, listen here Freddie get ready Come do the rocksteady It's festival fire, listen here You hear the children saying Boom boom, ba ba boom boom Boom boom festival Boom boom, ba ba boom boom  Slow beat, Rocksteady sound, has the repeated backbeat of ska (Tcha beat) – however there is a new kind of bass line  How difficult it is, what song is Rocksteady or Reggae  Difference = time, context  Reggae has a message to it, this song has no message to it  Keith & Tex practiced vocalizing like Sam & Dave – duo  They grew up in Jamaica, singing whatever they could sing  They really liked Sam & Dave and they considered themselves the Sam & Dave of Jamaica  They left Jamaica after making a big hit  Migration = Big factor  When the leave Jamaica, they are making more room for the Rastas to have room to be in the music scence  Rasta don‟t wish to leave Jamaica, they aren‟t going to go anywhere if they do  Factor in not carrying on the dominating music scene Song Title: Stop That Train Artist: Keith & Tex Year: 1967 Label: Crystal Producer: Derrick Harriott Stop that train, I want to get on, my baby she is leaving me now x 2 She said she was going on the morning train, She won‟t be back for long She said my dear I do love you No matter what they say or do Stop that train, I want to get on, my baby she is leaving me now x 2 Stop that train I want to get on, la la la la la la la la la la la Ouh yeah x 3 Instrumental Break She said she was going on the morning train, She won‟t be back for long She said my dear I do love you No matter what they say or do Stop that train, I want to get on, my baby she is leaving me now x 3 Stop that train I want to get on, la la la la la la la la la la la Ouh yeah x 3  John Holt – member of the group The Paragons  He is a singer, later convert to Rasta ideology  Rocksteady singers, practices, do their harmonies, trying to become the best singer  The Tide is High = they wrote this song  Connection to Great Britain through Island Records  They had a hit in England  BBC has control on the few radio stations  Protect the British industries, British content rules apply  Pirate stations pop up – boats anchored off shore, trucks – play all kind of music  People were tuning in and finding them on their dial  Non British music became so popular that the BBC had to play it  Tide is High became huge for this song, John Holt still has a career today  He is still very famous, he converted to Rasta  He never abandoned the content that he had originally  Boy meets girl, boy gets girl, etc – that kind of music he stayed true to  He did very well and it proved that despite the Bob Marley phenomenon (1970/71) – there was still a market for the love songs with a reggae beat – love is rock music  John Holt – King of the Love is Rock genre (did not invent it, but most popular)  Duke Reid „one of the biggest sound system in Jamaica‟  Has to confront these new people and he can‟t handle these people because he was a cop and he identifies as one  He doesn‟t really like the Rastafarians anyways  He is going to fall off the map  He doesn‟t stop making music but he is not on the leading edge anymore Song: Tide is High Artist: The Paragons Year: 1967 Label: Treasure Isle Producer: Duke Reid  This song has been covered by several artists such as Blondie  The Techniques – getting into the industry  They had their own label  There is no such thing as having a royalty  Trojan Label – Trojan sound system owned by Duke Reid  Label is a British Label, a lot of this music is on this label for British releases  There would be a licensing deal with Trojan  There is some confusion with the two names (Label = British, sound system Duke Reid)  Label was dedicated to Jamaican music  Love is Not a Gamble = hit  Winston Riley = big producer in Jamaica, one of the most talented Song: Queen Majesty Artist: The Techniques Year: 1967 Label: Treasure Isle Producer: Duke Reid Queen majesty, may I speak to thee (Oooh Oooh Ooooooohhhh!!!!) So much, I've long (I've long) To speak, to you alone Truly I agree, I'm not of your society (Oooh Oooh Ooooooohhhh!!!!) I'm not a king just a minstrel, but my song, to you I sing [Chorus] Oh just a minstrel (Ahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh!!!!!) Our worlds are so far apart!!! (Ahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh!!!!!) Royal queen, I, see love in your eyes, your eyes, I love you too [Verse Two] Is it really true These things I ask of you (Oooh Oooh Ooooooohhhh!!!!) Oh your majesty! Could you really care for me?! [Chorus] Oh just a minstrel (Ahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh!!!!!) Our worlds are so far apart!!! (Ahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh!!!!!) Royal queen, I, see love in your eyes, your eyes, I love you too [Verse Three] Now royal queen royal queen so, pretty and fine Every night and day yah mon yuh step pon mi mind More than one in a million cause your one of a kind I will, keep you in front and never leave you behind Royal queen royal queen I love you so Never ever ever gonna let you go [Chorus] Oh just a minstrel (Ahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh!!!!!) Our worlds are so far apart!!! (Ahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh!!!!!) Royal queen, I, see love in your eyes, your eyes, I love you too  Carlton & The Shoes  Coxsone – sound system business, ska and Rocksteady business, he is in every business  Leslie Kong – same as Coxsone, „no religion‟ they record for anyone and make a lot of money  One member from this group was in another group called the Abyssinians  Abyssinia = Ethiopia  Changing course in Jamaica, situation in 1967 in Jamaica = not good  Nothing for the people who left the country side for the city – but they didn‟t go back  Songs called: Santa Massagana and Declaration of Rights (turning point of music) by Marcus  You can sing about this stuff and people would like it and enjoy it  1967 – Record was a huge hit, one of the last big Rocksteady hit  Coxsone wasn‟t a dominant force, he survived through his music  He was in the sound system era, whereas Kong was not in it  Kong and Coxsone are about to take over  Kong more dominant than Coxsone – not by great songs, but by the absence by certain artists  DJ phenomenon in the 70s they had ability to play back a „version‟ of the song (remix with no words)  After this there would be a toasting  DJs are playing the version and just play that and they will chat/toast over top of it  Beginning of dancehall, DJ, rap – this is the beginning of it (no one knows it)  Remember the song below Song: Love Me Forever Artist: Carlton & The Shoes Year: 1968 Label: Studio 1 Producer: Coxsone Dodd Kiss me once, girl Kiss me twice, girl You are sugar and spice, girl And everything nice, girl Love me forever and I'll be true to you, girl You are an angel and you're so divine Yes, you are an angel and you're mine all mine Love me forever and I'll be true to you, girl (3. + true to you) [instr.] [3.: fine] Angel of mercy light aglow You are the one I‟m dreaming of Treat me right, treat me good, Make me do just like I should  Rasta Ideology – came from Marcus  Black people who had been moved from Africa to the new world, had nothing to gain from staying in the Western hemisphere  Futures were best assured by moving them back to Africa  This concept is very important because in British ruled Jamaica, all things good were British  The more British you were the more better you were scene in Jamaica  Jamaica is nothing, Antiga, Brazil, USA = they are nothing  The only place where you belong (Black people) is Africa  Africa = everything = AFROCENTRIC IDEOLOGY  Slaves were abolished in 1867, you‟re a king in Africa and you have to go back to Africa  Jamaica = Babylon (Negative context)  If you lived outside of the ring outside of Kingston – it‟s almost impossible to go hungry  No chance of you not having work, you will eat  A lot of food is free, it is growing on trees  In Jamaica – food is growing on trees and most of the food is falling from the trees and rotting  The rest of the food is being eaten by birds  No shortage of food in Jamaica, however if you lived in the urbanized area of Kingston  If you can‟t get out of Kingston and you have no way of getting out of there, you have to find some way to find work to live because you have to buy food  Problem = too many people/over crowded  It couldn‟t support a half million people  Massive amount of social problems in the west Kingston area  Some people who are living very comfortable lives  A lot of poor people in three little areas (Trench Town, Gunnam Town) – total abject poverty, no jobs, no food  It is not a rural area with farms – mango/trees  Instead there is a lot of buildings  1966 – report by British people who did a study – the amount of over population  There are 60 000 people in Jamaica  38 000 live in St. Kits plus more people  They will never be employed and they all live together in a very small state  Result of the study, there are thousands of people that the city cannot support  Only solution is to get out of the situation is to go back to the rural  They find a way (sometimes illegal ) to survive in Kingston  Mortimer Planno – Huge reason for what is about to happen - important  He‟s not really a Jamaican, born in Cuba, but moves to Jamaica as a child  Religious teaching, a scholar on things African, commanded a lot of respect  „Lift yourself up, Black Man‟, „look to Africa for your salvation because that is the o
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