NATS 1675 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Blood Transfusion, Antigen, Railways Act 1921

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11 Nov 2016
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Rh Iopatiility Nov. , 4
- Coditio that affets a fetus he the fetus ad the other’s lood type are differet
- Oly the Rh lood type e’re oered aout here
- In explanation, opportunity to talk about immune system, antigens and antibodies
- Talking about blood groups: ABO blood
Blood Grouping Basics
Blood groups are determined genetically
Blood groups are identified by the presence or absence of a protein termed an antigen on
the surface of the Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
o Protein on surface of RBC is antigen protein that can stimulate immune response
o Antigens can fit into antibodies (also proteins)
o Protein molecules are characterized by having specific shapes (protein: shape)
o Many biological processes are controlled by shapes of interacting proteins
o Antigens on the surface of red blood cells have a specific shape
There are many groups of blood antigens, but the most commonly discussed are the ABO
group and the Rhesus (Rh) factor.
o O stands for zero, nothing there or Rhesus factor (Rh)
o Identified in the blood of Rhesus monkeys
o If you are A+, you have A antigens and Rh antigen
o A-, you lack the Rh group
o AB, both antigens
o B, type B antigens
o O, none O, Rh positive/negative
o Rh factor is independent of ABO blood grouping
The presence of one group of antigens does not affect the presence or absence of other
antigens, eg. One can be Group A and + for the RH factor. This means antigens for the A group and
the RH factor are both present on the RBCs.
Type AB+ Blood
Red blood cells do not have nuclei, throw it out before released in circulation for more surface
area to carry oxygen
Type AB+ blood type, RBC has A, B and Rh antigen (different shapes)
Blood Groupig Basis Cot’d
Antibodies: proteins designed to protect the body exist within the plasma portion of the
blood
o Circulating within plasma are for wrong or opposite blood type
o If you are type A, you have type B antibodies
o If you are Rh negative, you have antibodies against Rh antigen
o You do’t hae atiodies agaist your own blood type but against the wrong blood
type
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