NATS 1675 Lecture Notes - Macromolecule, Cell Nucleus, Monosaccharide

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7 Feb 2013
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Professor: Barbara Czaban Human Development (NATS 1675)
The Human Body in the Larger World: Energy and Raw Materials
- Organisms dependent on the environment
- Ecology = the study of interactions between organisms and their environments
o Abiotic elements = sky, water, atmosphere, etc.
o Biotic elements = animals, plants, etc.
- Understanding ecological interactions is important because:
o Need to add new molecules to body as old ones get used up, depleted
Raw materials that make up the body (carbon, hydrogen, etc.)
Energy to drive metabolism of incoming food
Oxygen
Water
o The new materials come from the environment
Raw physical materials from other animals, the atmosphere, the Earth
Energy from sunlight and chemical reactions
Macromolecules
- Organisms get important biological macromolecules through food
Category
Subunits
Macromolecule Example
Lipids
Glycerol tail + fatty acids
Fat
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharide (sucrose, etc.)
Polysaccharides (fructose,
sucrose, etc.)
Proteins
Amino Acid
Polypeptide
Nucleic Acids
Nucleotides
DNA, RNA
Photosynthesis
- Light energy + carbon dioxide + water oxygen + sugars
o Light is captured and transformed into chemical energy, sugar bonds formed
o Oxygen is a by-product of glucose formation
o Plants, algae and certain bacteria carry out photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration
- Sugars + oxygen carbon dioxide + water
o All cells do this
o Oxygen is used to break down sugars
This is called the Calvin cycle
o Carbon dioxide, water and “energy” are by-products of glucose breakdown