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Lecture 12

NATS 1675 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Internal Intercostal Muscles, External Intercostal Muscles


Department
Natural Science
Course Code
NATS 1675
Professor
Robert Crippen
Lecture
12

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NATS%1675%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
-%RESPIRATORY%SYSTEMS%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
(Final%Exam%Starts%Here)%
Primary'function'is'to'transfer'oxygen'from'the'atmosphere'to'the'
blood,'and'carbon'dioxide'from'the'blood'to'the'atmosphere'
Carbon'dioxide'='metabolic'waste''
o Plants'need'this''
R1'
o 'Ventilationbreathing;'the'mechanical'process'by'which'air'is'
moved'in'and'out'of'the'lungs;'
o External'respirationthe'process'by'which'gases'are'exchanged'
between'the'blood'and'the'air;'
o Internal'respirationthe'process'by'which'gases'are'exchanged'
between'the'blood'and'the'cells:'and'
o Cellular'respirationthe'process'by'which'cells'combine'O2'and'
some'fuel,'usually'glucose.''This'process'yields'usable'energy'
and'CO2'as'a'waste'product.%
R2:%External'Respiratory'System'
Think'of'the'structures'of'the'respiratory'system'as'a'fruit'treethe'
“bronchial'tree”:'
Conductive'portion:'
o Nasal'cavity/mouth/pharynx'='Roots'

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2'
o Larynx'(voice'box)'='Base'
o Trachea'='Trunk' '
o Bronchi'(bronchus'–'sing)'='First'two'primary'tree'branches'
o Secondary'bronchi'='Secondary'branches'
o Bronchioles'='Twigs'
Respiratory'portion:'
o Alveoli'='Clumps'of'berries'or'grapes'
R3:%Internal'Respiration'
Blood%transports%gases%to%or%away%from%cells,%therefore%the%
circulation%of%blood%in%“internal%respiration”%is%like%breathing%in%
“external%respiration”.%
R4:'The'nasal'cavity'and'the'pharynx'are'both'lined'with'a'mucus'
membrane'(consists'of'ciliated'cells)'that'is'also'composed'of'ciliated'
epithelial'cells.'''
The'mucus'traps'atmospheric'debris.'''
The'cilia'beat'downward'moving'the'mucus'and'debris'to'the'pharynx'
where'it'is'either'ejected'or'swallowed.''
'Much'of'the'rest'of'the'respiratory'tract'below'the'pharynx'is'lined'
with'the'same'ciliated'mucus'membrane,'however,'the'cilia'beat'
upward'moving'the'mucus'and'debris'to'the'pharynx'for'the'same'
result.'
Nasal%Cavity:%Air'enters'the'external'nares'='nostrils''
Entrance'to'the'nasal'cavity'
Bronchi:%Cartilaginous'tubes'that'become'progressively'smaller'%
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3'
As'the'bronchioles'shrink'they'become'1'mm'in'diameter'
Bronchioles'are'surrounded'by'smooth'muscle'
As'the'smooth'muscle'contract'the'bronchioles'become'restricted,'
which'results'in'weaisng'
The'bronchioles'end'in'the'alveoli'(alveolus,'singular)'–'blind'sacs'that'
look'like'a'cluster'of'grapes''
The'alveoli'are'surround'by'a'network'of'blood'vessels'especially'
capillaries''
o Oxygen'in,'carbon'dioxide'out'
o Pulmonary'veins'(red)'is'coming'off'the'right'ventricle,'to'the'
lungs'(carrying'deoxygenated'blood)'
Total'surface'area'of'the'lungs'='68'm2''
o About'the'area'of'a'single'tennis'court'
R5:%The'alveoli'are'lined'with'a'surfactant'film'that'lowers'the'surface'
tension'of'water.''This'prevents'the'alveoli'from'closing.'The'lungs'can'
collapse'in'some'newborns,'especially'premature'infants,'who'lack'this'
film.''%
The%condition%is%called%infant%respiratory%distress%syndrome.%It%is%now%
treatable%by%surfactant%replacement%therapy.%
R6:%When'one'has'pleurisy,'these'layers'are'inflamed'causing'varying'
degrees'of'pain'from'breathing'and'coughing.'
Lungs:%They'are'located'in'the'pleural'cavity%
The'lungs'are'covered'with'a'moist'water'lining,'called'visceral'pleura'
The'right'lung'–'has'3'lobes''
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