NATS 1675 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Nasal Cavity, Fruit Tree, Nasal Hair

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6 Apr 2016
NATS 1675 LECTURE #21 The Respiratory System
Professor: Robert Crippen
Beginning of the exam material
What is the Respiratory System?
Its primary function is the transfer of O2 [oxygen] from the atmosphere to the blood
likewise, CO2 [carbon dioxide] from the blood to the atmosphere
For plants like CO2 but they make their own food so they require O2 to break down food
so really, it requires both
Process of the transfer of CO2 and O2
1) Ventilation : It is a fancy word for “breathing”; It is the mechanical process by which air is
moved in and out of the lungs
2) External respiration : It is the process by which gases are exchanged between the blood
and the air
3) Internal respiration : It is the process by which gases are exchanged between the blood
and the cells; your cells need O2 so that we breathe now, the O2 is going to move from
the blood to cells
4) Cellular respiration : It is the process by which cells combine O2 and some fuel, usually
glucose. This process yields energy and CO2 as a waste product. It travels in the
reversal state.
External Respiratory System
Refer to the Human Respiratory Tract in the textbook
The structure of the respiratory system as a fruit tree “ The Bronchial tube”
Conductive portion
Nasal cavity / mouth / pharynx: Air is going to enter the external nares = nostrils & they
are the entrance of the nasal cavity; roots - The nasal cavity and the pharynx are both
lined with a mucus membrane that is also composed of ciliated epithelial cells. The
mucus traps atmospheric debris. The cilia beat downward moving the mucus and debris
to the pharynx where it is either ejected or swallowed. Much of the rest of the respiratory
tract below the pharynx is lined with the same ciliated mucus membrane, however, the
cilia beat upward moving the mucus and debris to the pharynx for the same result
Larynx [voice box]: Base
Trachea: Trunk
Bronchi [bronchus sing]: First two primary tree branches cartilaginous tubes that
become progressively smaller
Secondary bronchi: Secondary branches
Bronchioles: Twigs - As bronchioles, they become 1mm in diameter. When they are
quite small, they are surrounded by smooth muscle. During an asthma attack, smooth
muscles contract. The bronchioles end in the alveoli
Respiratory portion
Alveoli: Clumps of berries or grapes
Internal Respiration
It is the transport of gases to or away from the cells, therefore the circulation of blood in
“internal respiration” is like breathing in “external respiration”
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