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Lecture 5

NATS 1700 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Telnet, Microcomputer, Collective Intelligence


Department
Natural Science
Course Code
NATS 1700
Professor
Dov Lungu
Lecture
5

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October 16, 2014
The Internet
What We Will Learn
- The three stages in the evolution of the Internet
- The computer as a communication medium
- How Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 came about
The Internet
- An interconnected network of a vast number of computer networks linking academic, research,
government, and commercial institutions
Connected through telecommunications technologies such as: telephone lines, coaxial
cables, fiber optic cables, satellite, and radio
A communication infrastructure
It introduced a new dimension into IT
- It was developed over several decades
- Was a product of the its social environment
- There have been many actors taking part in its development
Users played an active part in its development
- It was built through a series of social choices
Three Development Stages
1) Innovation Stage 1969-75
2) Institutional Stage 1975-95
3) Commercialization Stage 1995-onward
Innovation Stage 1969-75
- The fundamental building blocks of the Internet were conceptualized and then realized in
actual hardware and software.
- Based on the experimental ARPANET network (1969) funded and encouraged by the Advanced
Research Projects Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense
As an initial reaction to the launch of the Sputnik (1957)
- ARPANET
Linked the mainframe computers military agencies and research centers at universities
Intended to enable resource sharing between remote computers
Initiated as safeguard against a space-based missile attack
U.S. Air Force interested in maintaining command and control over its missiles
and bombers after a nuclear attack
- TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/InternetProtocol)
Invented in 1974 by Vinton Cerf and Robert Khan
A set of rules that allows different networks to connect
Hardware independent
Breaks messages into packets
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IP is the address for the packets
The Institutional Stage: 1975-95
- Large institutions (ex. The American Department of Defense, the National Science Foundation)
provided funding and legitimization for the Internet.
- The microcomputer introduced new categories of users
1979: USENET news groups
1985: E-mail and news groups part of university life
1991: The World Wide Web (1991) a turning point in the development of the Internet
1995: Internet completely privatized
The Communication Dimension
- Internet not originally intended to serve as a medium for interpersonal communication
- But in the 1970s, it introduced new ways of computer mediated human communication
Email rather than resources sharing becomes the most popular feature of the network
The idea of the network as a means of bringing people together becomes dominant
Increasingly ARPANET (later the Internet) came to be seen as a human communication
system rather than as a computer communication one.
The users gave ARPANET a new purpose
- The ARPA theme is that the promise offered by the computer as a communication medium
between people, dwarfs into relative insignificance the historical beginnings of the computer as
an arithmetic engine.”
ARPANET Completion Report, F. Heart, A. McKenzie, J. McQuillan, D. Walden,
Washington, D.C., 1978.
- Group communication (many-to-many)
Synchronous (real-time): Chat room; Online games
Asynchronous (delayed): Discussion groups, Mailing lists
- Interpersonal communication (one-to-one)
Synchronous: Private chat
Asynchronous: E-mail
- Mass communication (one-to-many)
Synchronous: Internet radio and television
Asynchronous: E-mail, Online newspapers. Weblogs (blogs)
Internet Facilities (1995)
- E-mail: sending messages from one computer to another
- IRC (Internet Relay Chat): enables people to write to each other in real-time
- Telnet: enables logging in to another (remote) computer
- FPT (File Transfer Protocol): transfers files electronically between computers
- Newsgroups: enable on-line discussion forums
- WWW (World Wide Web): a vast collection of interlinked multimedia documents
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