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NATS 1775 Lecture Notes - Plough, Horse Collar, Encastellation

Natural Science
Course Code
NATS 1775
Vera Pavri

of 3
Medieval centuries were rural
Peasants practiced open field farming
- Tract of land divided in half
- Heavy plow allowed drainage (could cut deep into furrows)
- Agricultural revolution a result of heavy plow > horse plow> three field system
--- Disagree because social change which necessitated human application caused the agri
revolution 40
- Mundane lifestyle where people were adjust their practices according to season
- Medieval agriculture can be a result of technique
Three part system one was fallow , one had winter crops and one had spring crops
- The horse collar enabled loads to be puled, horse shoes which prevented lameness
- Villages can be ruled by lords via manorlism either because villagers need protection or
disproportionate power of lord 41
Lord/lady took 2/3 of produce were taken by the lord
Most of the tools and equipment made in manor
- Population increased resulted in more land being cultivated (assarting 41)
- Non cultivated areas such as marshes was used for fishing, wood, twine and reeds
- Cistercian farming - purchased cultivated land. Able bodied peasants became conversi. New
lifestyle which involved religious obligation, economic security etc 42
Had more farmland, had more live stock
THE flippin mill:
- Different mills were used by different organizations depending on geography and social
- Peasants might use hand mills or horse mills to grind grain
- Grinding grain was the premier use for the mill, sawing wood, producing tan eahter
The amazing castle
- Castles represented noble’s status
- Motte and bailey castle was an earthen mound topped by a wooden fortification
- Late tenth century stone castles replaced motte and bailey castles
- Walls were most important characteristic
- Area around rome in Italy had a trend called incastellamento villages were formed near castles
to dominate country side rather then protect it 44
The growth of towns
- Medieval towns a result of increased trade and commerce (towns were given a degree of
freedom and autonomy)
- The long distance trade had an impact of urbanization such as Vikings turning into traders
- The crusades which were to capture the infidel had trade shows 45
- Cities became places for luxury goods to be made such as glass ware pots and pans
Boys and girls were often to become masters in workshops
Crafts and trades
- Many materials made on site , smith became valued artisan in village
- Monastaries were important by providing tools used by monks such as clothing pottery etc 45
- Growth on towns can also be a result of specialized crafts. Tanners made leather out of skins.
Medieval crafts included glassmaking
- The manufacture of wool was the most important
Architecture and building construction
- Seen in cathedrals and abbeys and emphasized space
- Mason in charge of design and instruction and travelled to different regions 46
The value of work
- Guillds and such paved the way for peer companionship and support for members
- Schools and institutions established
- Skilled trades separate from learning tradtioons
- Trades often gendered divided by women still participated and enrolled in a variety of activities
- Women dominated in the fabric business but eventually men came in the line
- Few industries involving long distance travel and heavy hauling exclusively male
- Females earned 2/3 of much as males in all occupations 48
- Some apprenticeship of females included bakers, spinners, gold thread etc.
Needham puzzle
- Why china did not have a revolution in technology in other places, Chinese was highly develoed
- Highagriculture activity and development, despite early innovations China did not take the next
- China did not progress while the Western did after 17th century
The high level equilibrium trap
- High fertility despite failing economy
- Demand became cheap for labour
- Reduced man to land ratio resulted in decreased surplus
- Europe had a man-land ratio
Labour shortages always present a result of double cropping
Pop, sci and invention
- China did not make the shift from experienced based sci to experiment cum sci based
- Technology that is better then previous technology technological innovation
- Inventors knowledge can improve his technology by inventing something better
- P 55 DESCRIBES 3 TRAITS FOR technology
Tech in pre-modern times
- Tech innovation is an improvement in productivity
- A population may define the rate of technology (larger pool of gifted people in econ)
- China did have a larger population then Europe
- But china had a dominant ideal system by absolute political power and no dispute was allow
- Not as much incentives top jobs were ones in the beaurocrat so gifted ones would go after these
- Many courses were time extensive and people probably were not dedicated to put their focus n
other things
- Thus people were more interested in the incentives provided with educaton it sees