Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
York (40,000)
NATS (3,000)
NATS 1775 (300)
Lecture 14

NATS 1775 Lecture 14: Unit 14 Communications Technologies, Part II Personal Computers


Department
Natural Science
Course Code
NATS 1775
Professor
Vera Pavri
Lecture
14

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 16 pages of the document.
I.#Examining#the#Role#of#the#Hobbyist#in#the#History#of#Technology#
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II.#Characteristics#of#Computer#Hobbyists#
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III.#Hobbyists,#Minicomputers#and#Timesharing
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IV.#Mass#Marketing#Integrated#Circuits#and#Microprocessors
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V.#Initial#Industry#Reaction#to#the#Personal#Computer#
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-
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-
iii.#Creation#of#New#Software#and#Hardware#Applications#
+$%10']!)($,'1(20'4$)*'!$2$)05'/,"&,(22$%&'1(/(8$!$)$0+F'+"20'*"88-$+)+'+1,(28!05')"'
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ElectronicsN'80!$0605'U(+$1'4"3!5'80'$50(!'!(%&3(&0'801(3+0'$)'4(+'0(+-')"'!0(,%'
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7
n()0+'(%5']!!0%')*0%'0+)(8!$+*05'`$1,"+".)'=",$&$%(!!-'`$1,"S+".)>'(%5'40%)'$%)"'
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7
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7
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7
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7
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7
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)*()'40,0'/,06$"3+!-'"%!-'(6($!(8!0'"%'60,-'0X/0%+$60'+-+)02+'
7
IV.#Lead#Users#
H"2/3)0,'*"88-$+)+'+0,605'(+'Z&"S80)400%['&,"3/'.",'83+$%0++'(%5'1"%+320,+'(%5'
4$)*"3)')*02F'$%53+),$0+'2(-'%")'*(60'800%'(8!0')"'2(,#0)'/0,+"%(!'1"2/3)0,')"'
2(++'/"/3!()$"%
7
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7
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7
V.#Imprint#on#Technology
h"88-$+)'6$+$"%'4(+',0)($%05'$%'(,1*$)01)3,0'".'+-+)02N'"/0%'83+'+-+)02',0.!01)05'
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7
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7
IX.#Personal#Computers#Come#of#Age
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7
Unit%14:%Communications%Technologies,%Part%II:
Personal%Computers
b*3,+5(-F'V08,3(,-'BEF'KJBD
P9JJ'R`

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

I.#Examining#the#Role#of#the#Hobbyist#in#the#History#of#Technology#
!""#$%&'()'*$+)",-'".'/0,+"%(!'1"2/3)0,'(!!"4+'3+')"'+00')*0',"!0')*()'(2()03,+'
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7
1"2/3)0,'*"88-$+)+'1"%),$83)05')"')*0'5060!"/20%)'".')*0'2$1,"1"2/3)0,'
$%53+),-'$%'('%3280,'".'5$..0,0%)'4(-+9'
(:'+0)'3/'3+0,'%0)4",#+
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1:'0+)(8!$+*05'2(%-'+2(!!'2(%3.(1)3,$%&'.$,2+
5:'40,0'!0(5'3+0,+'
0:'!0.)'$2/,$%)'"%')01*%"!"&-'$)+0!.'
7
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7
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7
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7
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#%"4!05&0')*(%'(60,(&0'3+0,'
7
II.#Characteristics#of#Computer#Hobbyists#
$%'BCDEF'G0%)3,0'<060!"/20%)'H",/",()$"%'5$5'+3,60-'".'"60,'BIJJ'1"2/3)0,'
*"88-$+)+F'(%5'.$%5$%&+'/,"6$50'3+0.3!'$%."'(8"3)'&0%0,(!'1*(,(1)0,$+)$1+'".'(2()03,+
7
KLM'".'1"2/3)0,'*"88-$+)+'40,0'/,".0++$"%(!'02/!"-05'20%'4*"'4",#05'(+'0$)*0,'
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7
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7
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400#'
7
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7
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7
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5$+),3+)05'&"60,%20%)'(%5'8$&'83+$%0++'801(3+0'".'/"!$)$1(!'1!$2()0'
7
Y(%)05')"'Z!$80,()0[' 1"2/3)0,+'(%5')(#0'8(1#')01*%"!"&-'.,"2'1",/",()0'/"40,+'
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7
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1"2/3)0,+'80$%&'3+05')"'1"%),"!'(60,(&0'/0,+"%'
7
III.#Hobbyists,#Minicomputers#and#Timesharing
`(%-'*"88-$+)+'40,0'$%.!30%105'8-'4",#'".'@:H:?:'_$1#!$50,'4*"'4,")0'/(/0,'1(!!05'
Z`(%SH"2/3)0,';-28$"+$+['$%'BCEJ
7
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]?R]'=]56(%105'?0+0(,1*'R,"d01)']&0%1->
7
]?R]',0(!!-'*0!/05'/,"2")0'%")$"%'".'Z)$20S+*(,$%&[7
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0%)$,0'2(1*$%0')"')*02+0!60+
7
Y$)*')$20S+*(,$%&F'('+$%&!0'2($%.,(20'1"2/3)0,'4"3!5'80'())(1*05')"'5$..0,0%)'
)0,2$%(!+')*()'*(5')*0$,'"4%'/,$%)0,'(%5'1(,5',0(50,'
7
b$20S+*(,$%&'4(+'0%*(%105')*(%#+')"',$+0'".'%04'(%5'+$2/!0')"'!0(,%'/,"&,(22$%&'
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$+'+".)4(,0'(//!$1()$"%+')*()'.$,+)'()),(1)05'(60,(&0'1"%+320,')"'/0,+"%(!'1"2/3)0,+'
=)*$%#'4",5'/,"10++$%&'(%5'+/,0(5+*00)+>
7
]//!$1()$"%+'+".)4(,0'=0:&:'.",'&(20+F'83+$%0++'",'0531()$"%>'1"3!5'80'3+05'8-'
1"%+320,'4*"'%060,'%00505')"'/,"&,(2'('1"2/3)0,'"%')*0$,'"4%'(%5'4(+'
$%+),320%)(!'$%'/"/3!(,$e$%&'RH+'
7
`(++'/,"53105'83+$%0++'+".)4(,0'.$,+)'(//0(,05'(,"3%5'BCDT'(%5'(!!"405'1"%+320,+'
)"'5"')*$%&+'!$#0'1,0()0'+/,0(5+*00)+'(%5'5()(8(+0+'(+'40!!'(+'/,0/(,0'(%5'4,$)0'
5"1320%)+'
7
A%'/(,)$13!(,F'4",5'/,"10++$%&'"%'RH+'4(+'0%*(%105'801(3+0'".'Ym;AYmn')01*%"!"&-'
)*()'40,0'/,06$"3+!-'"%!-'(6($!(8!0'"%'60,-'0X/0%+$60'+-+)02+'
7
IV.#Lead#Users#
H"2/3)0,'*"88-$+)+'+0,605'(+'Z&"S80)400%['&,"3/'.",'83+$%0++'(%5'1"%+320,+'(%5'
4$)*"3)')*02F'$%53+),$0+'2(-'%")'*(60'800%'(8!0')"'2(,#0)'/0,+"%(!'1"2/3)0,')"'
2(++'/"/3!()$"%
7
_0(5'3+0,+9'.(10'%005+')*()'&0%0,(!'2(,#0)/!(10'4$!!'.(10F'83)'5"'+"'231*'0(,!$0,' "%7
h"88-$+)+'".)0%')$%#0,05'4$)*'%04'2$1,"1"2/3)0,'$%'*"/0+'".'&0))$%&'(!!')*0'Z83&+['
"3)
7
A2/,"605'*(,54(,0'(%5'+".)4(,0'+"')*()'4*0%'/0,+"%(!'1"2/3)0,'.$%(!!-'(5"/)05'8-'
!(,&0'$%53+),$0+'!$#0'AU`F']//!0'(%5'b(%5-F'2(%-'".')*0'#$%#+'*(5'(!,0(5-'800%'
4",#05'"3)'
7
$2/",)(%)'$.'"%0'1"%+$50,+'$%53+),$0+'$%)0%505')"'+0!!'/0,+"%(!'1"2/3)0,'(+'83+$%0++'
)""!N'$.'\3(!$)-'0,,()$1F'3%!$#0!-')"'()),(1)'83+$%0++0+'
7
V.#Imprint#on#Technology
h"88-$+)'6$+$"%'4(+',0)($%05'$%'(,1*$)01)3,0'".'+-+)02N'"/0%'83+'+-+)02',0.!01)05'
*"88-$+)'),(5$)$"%'".'$%.",2()$"%'+*(,$%&'
7
U3+'(,1*$)01)3,0'(!!"405'*"88-$+)+')"')($!",'1"2/3)0,')"'+3$)'%005+'7
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7
H,0()$"%'".'+".)4(,0'(//!$1()$"%+'*0!/05'50)0,2$%0'4*()'"/0,()$"%+')01*%"!"&-'
4"3!5'/0,.",2'
7
`(++'2(,#0)$%&'".'/0,+"%(!'1"2/3)0,'+)(,)05'(,"3%5'BCDD'4$)*'1",/",()$"%+'!$#0'
]//!0F'H"22"5",0'(%5'b(%5-'4*"'50+$&%05'+$2/!0F'0(+-')"'3+0'1"2/3)0,+')*()'
"..0,05'('6(,$0)-'".'/,(1)$1(!'(//!$1()$"%+'
7
A%'/(,)$13!(,F'@"8+'(%5'Y"e%$(#'=]//!0>',01"&%$e05')*()'$%'",50,'.",'RH')"'80'
+3110++.3!'1"%+320,'/,"531)F'$)'4"3!5'*(60')"'80'+"!5'(+'0(+-')"'3+0F'+0!.S1"%)($%05'
+-+)02'!$#0'")*0,'*"3+0*"!5'(//!$(%10+'
7
@"8+'4(+'(4(,0'".'4",#'k0,"X'*(5'5"%0'"%']!)"F'+0,605'(+'$%+/$,()$"%'.",'.$,+)'
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.,"2'8(%#,3/)1->'
7
IX.#Personal#Computers#Come#of#Age
]88()0'=BCCC>9'Z/0,+"%(!'1"2/3)0,+'40,0'%")'d3+)'+2(!!0,')*(%'/,06$"3+'2(1*$%0+F'
)*0-',0/,0+0%)05'('4*"!0'%04'4(-'".'!""#$%&'()'(%5'3+$%&'1"2/3)0,+['
7
AU`'801(20'+-%"%-2"3+'4$)*'RH+'$%'0(,!-'BCTJ+'(%5'*0!/05'8""+)'+(!0+'".'
1"2/(%$0+'!$#0'A%)0!'=TJTT'2$1,"/,"10++",'1*$/+>'(%5'`$1,"+".)'=<c;F'Y$%5"4+'
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7
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7
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7
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7
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]?R]>F'*(5')0(2'!""#$%&'()'3+0,'.,$0%5!-'1"2/3)$%&'20)*"5+'(%5'1(20'3/'4$)*'$50('
".'2"3+0'
7
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*"20+'(,0'(8!0')"'Z)(!#[')"'0(1*'")*0,'f!0(5$%&')"'4*()'40'#%"4')"5(-'(+'$%)0,%0)
7
Unit%14:%Communications%Technologies,%Part%II:
Personal%Computers
b*3,+5(-F'V08,3(,-'BEF'KJBD P9JJ'R`

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

I.#Examining#the#Role#of#the#Hobbyist#in#the#History#of#Technology#
!""#$%&'()'*$+)",-'".'/0,+"%(!'1"2/3)0,'(!!"4+'3+')"'+00')*0',"!0')*()'(2()03,+'
1(%'/!(-'$%')*0'5060!"/20%)'".'%04')01*%"!"&$0+'
7
1"2/3)0,'*"88-$+)+'1"%),$83)05')"')*0'5060!"/20%)'".')*0'2$1,"1"2/3)0,'
$%53+),-'$%'('%3280,'".'5$..0,0%)'4(-+9'
(:'+0)'3/'3+0,'%0)4",#+
8:'0+)(8!$+*05'%04'*(,54(,0'(%5'+".)4(,0'/,"&,(2+
1:'0+)(8!$+*05'2(%-'+2(!!'2(%3.(1)3,$%&'.$,2+
5:'40,0'!0(5'3+0,+'
0:'!0.)'$2/,$%)'"%')01*%"!"&-'$)+0!.'
7
1"2/3)0,'*"88-$+)+'40,0'!0(5'3+0,+'".'/0,+"%(!'1"2/3)$%&')01*%"!"&-'(%5'
*0!/05'3/5()0'2(1*$%0+'80.",0')*0-'0%)0,05'1"%+320,'2(,#0)'
7
$50('".'(2()03,9'50+1,$80+'(%'$%5$6$53(!'4*"'/3,+30+'(1)$6$)-'"3)+$50'".'*$+'",'
*0,',0&3!(,'"113/()$"%'.",'%"'2"%0)(,-'1"2/0%+()$"%'
7
*$+)",$(%+'".')01*%"!"&-'*(60'5$..0,$%&'6$04+'".'*"4'#%"4!05&0(8!0'(2()03,+'
(,09';3+(%'<"3&!(+'=,(5$"'"/0,()",+>'60,+3+'?00+0'@0%#$%+'=/*")"&,(/*->'
7
A50('".'+#$!!05'(2()03,9'/3,+30+'(1)$6$)-'"3)+$50'".'*$+'",'*0,',0&3!(,'"113/()$"%'
.",'%"'2"%0)(,-'1"2/0%+()$"%'(%5'*(+'*$&*0,')*(%'(60,(&0')01*%$1(!'+#$!!+'(%5'
#%"4!05&0')*(%'(60,(&0'3+0,'
7
II.#Characteristics#of#Computer#Hobbyists#
$%'BCDEF'G0%)3,0'<060!"/20%)'H",/",()$"%'5$5'+3,60-'".'"60,'BIJJ'1"2/3)0,'
*"88-$+)+F'(%5'.$%5$%&+'/,"6$50'3+0.3!'$%."'(8"3)'&0%0,(!'1*(,(1)0,$+)$1+'".'(2()03,+
7
KLM'".'1"2/3)0,'*"88-$+)+'40,0'/,".0++$"%(!'02/!"-05'20%'4*"'4",#05'(+'0$)*0,'
/,"&,(220,+F')01*%$1$(%+'",'0%&$%00,+N'O'".')*0+0'$%5$6$53(!+'3+05'1"2/3)0,+'"%'('
,0&3!(,'8(+$+'()'4",#'
7
60,-'.(2$!$(,'4$)*'1"2/3)0,'$%53+),-'(%5'!()0+)')01*%"!"&-'7
PJQ'".'*"88-$+)+'5$5'%")'"4%')*0$,'"4%'1"2/3)0,+'83)'1"%+$50,05')*02+0!60+'(8"60'
%"6$10'!060!'$%'8")*'+".)4(,0'(%5'*(,54(,0'(//!$1()$"%+N'40,0'.(2$!$(,'4$)*'R<RST'(%5'
R<RSBB'2(1*$%0'!(%&3(&0+'(%5'")*0,'/,"&,(22$%&'!(%&3(&0+'!$#0'U(+$1'(%5'V",),(%'
7
PPQ'+/0%5'80)400%'BJSBC'*"3,+'('400#'"%'*"88-N'BMQ'+/0%)'1!"+0')"'MJ'*"3,+'('
400#'
7
BLM'".'*"88-$+)+'$%60+)05'"60,'WKJJJ'$%')*0$,'1"2/3)0,'+-+)02+N'BJQ'KX')*$+'(2"3%)'
=BJSKJQ'".'(%%3(!'$%1"20>'
7
Y*$!0'2(%-'1"2/3)0,'*"88-$+)+'40,0'+$2/!-'$%)0,0+)05'$%')*0'Z*(,54(,0F[')*0,0'4(+'
('+),"%&'+38+0)'".'1"2/3)0,'*"88-$+)+'4*"'40,0'+"1$(!!-'1"%+1$"3+'$%5$6$53(!+'4*"'
80!$0605'/0,+"%(!'1"2/3)0,+'4"3!5'!0(5')"'0\3(!'"//",)3%$)$0+'.",'(!!'2$%",$)-'&,"3/+'
(%5'+"1$(!'1!(++0+'
7
]%)$S0+)(8!$+*20%)9'80!$0605')*()'1"2/3)0,+'+*"3!5'80'(6($!(8!0')"'",5$%(,-'/0"/!0N'
5$+),3+)05'&"60,%20%)'(%5'8$&'83+$%0++'801(3+0'".'/"!$)$1(!'1!$2()0'
7
Y(%)05')"'Z!$80,()0[' 1"2/3)0,+'(%5')(#0'8(1#')01*%"!"&-'.,"2'1",/",()0'/"40,+'
(%5'&"60,%20%)
7
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/38!$1!-'(110++'2($%.,(20+N'R0"/!0a+'H"2/3)0,'H"2/(%-'+0%)'"3)'%04+!0))0,+1!($205'
1"2/3)0,+'80$%&'3+05')"'1"%),"!'(60,(&0'/0,+"%'
7
III.#Hobbyists,#Minicomputers#and#Timesharing
`(%-'*"88-$+)+'40,0'$%.!30%105'8-'4",#'".'@:H:?:'_$1#!$50,'4*"'4,")0'/(/0,'1(!!05'
Z`(%SH"2/3)0,';-28$"+$+['$%'BCEJ
7
R(/0,'/,"/"+05'3+$%&'1"2/3)0,+')"'0%*(%10'4",#'".'060,-5(-'/0"/!0'=(3)"2()0'!"4'
!060!')(+#+>'(%5'!05')"'1,0()$"%'".'ARbc'=A%."'R,"10++$%&'(%5'b01*%$\30+'c..$10>'4$)*'
]?R]'=]56(%105'?0+0(,1*'R,"d01)']&0%1->
7
]?R]',0(!!-'*0!/05'/,"2")0'%")$"%'".'Z)$20S+*(,$%&[
7
b$20S+*(,$%&'4(+'/"/3!(,$e05'$%'BCEJ+'$%'/!(10+'!$#0'`Ab'(%5'<(,)2"3)*'f"%0'
1"2/3)0,'4"3!5'80'3+05'+$23!)(%0"3+!-'8-'2(%-'3+0,+F'0(1*'".'4*"2'.0!)')*0-'*(5'
0%)$,0'2(1*$%0')"')*02+0!60+
7
Y$)*')$20S+*(,$%&F'('+$%&!0'2($%.,(20'1"2/3)0,'4"3!5'80'())(1*05')"'5$..0,0%)'
)0,2$%(!+')*()'*(5')*0$,'"4%'/,$%)0,'(%5'1(,5',0(50,'
7
b$20S+*(,$%&'4(+'0%*(%105')*(%#+')"',$+0'".'%04'(%5'+$2/!0')"'!0(,%'/,"&,(22$%&'
!(%&3(&0'=U];AH>'4*$1*'(!!"405'%"%S0X/0,)+')"'4,$)0')*0$,'"4%'/,"&,(2+'(.)0,'
2$%$2(!'$%+),31)$"%'
7
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7
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7
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3+0,+'()'(')$20>
7
b*$+'&(60'2(%-'*"88-$+)+')*0$,'.$,+)'Z)(+)0['".'/0,+"%(!'1"2/3)$%&'
7
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7
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7
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7
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7
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7
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7
IV.#Mass#Marketing#Integrated#Circuits#and#Microprocessors
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7
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7
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7
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7
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7
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7
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('Z2$1,"/,"&,(22(8!0'1"2/3)0,'"%'('1*$/['
7
Y*$!0')*$+'1*$/'1"%)($%05'8(+$1',0&$+)0,'(%5'1"%),"!'.3%1)$"%+'".'('+2(!!F'&0%0,(!'
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801(3+0')*0-'1"%)($%05'?(%5"2']110++'`02",-'=?]`>F'?0(5Sc%!-'`02",-'
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7
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