Industries which were able to increasingly control over scientific operations. Used scientific knowledge and research application for the production of new goods. One of the most important tools to understand when discussing the idea of managing and controlling technology. Patents existed before techno-science industries, but in the second industrial revolution, the ways in which patents were used were new. Definition: an official document that allows an individual or individuals to have the sole right to make, use or sell a specified invention for a specific period of time. Prevents any other individual from making, using or selling the same product. A patent was given to an inventor as an incentive to invent. This is because if there are no rights protecting others from using that information or invention, a person may be more reluctant to share their invention for fear of being copied. Must go through the patent office in order to be granted a patent.