NATS 1775 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Arc Lamp, Electric Arc, Technoscience

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Published on 27 Nov 2011
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Lecture Sixteen: Rise of Techno-Science Based Industries
November 15, 2011
Techno-Science Industries
-Industries which were able to increasingly control over scientific operations
-Used scientific knowledge and research application for the production of new
goods
Patents
One of the most important tools to understand when discussing the idea of
managing and controlling technology.
Patents existed before techno-science industries, but in the second industrial
revolution, the ways in which patents were used were new.
Definition: an official document that allows an individual or individuals to have
the sole right to make, use or sell a specified invention for a specific period of
time.
-Prevents any other individual from making, using or selling the same product
-All patents have an expiration date
Incentive Based
-A patent was given to an inventor as an incentive to invent
-This is because if there are no rights protecting others from using that
information or invention, a person may be more reluctant to share their
invention for fear of being copied
Patent-Status
-An invention must be unique
-Must go through the patent office in order to be granted a patent
Advantages of Patents
Incentive-Based
-This gives people the incentive to create new things
Security
-Gives an inventor a sense of safety and security for a given period of time
-When a person had a patent, banks and other financial institutions are more
likely to give money to them for further innovations
A Patent Begets More Patents”
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-When a person has a patent, they gain a small bit of fame and recognition
-When they build this reputation, they are more likely to get patents for new
inventions in the future
Disadvantages of Patents
Discourages Competition
-When there are limits on who can create and produce certain products, there
is very little competition because it is against the law
-This limits consumer choice
-Consumers may have to pay very high prices for that good because there
are no substitutes
-Costly legal disputes
Consumer Good vs. Producer Good
-Often, those with patents are looking to make money
-Sometimes the desire to make money exceeds the desire to do good for the
whole of society
-Example: pharmaceutical companies create life saving drugs at high costs.
Those who cannot afford these drugs must suffer. There are no substitutes
and therefore the good of the company is being served, but not the good of
the rest of society necessarily.
Opportunity Costs
-There will always be fights about patents and who has the rights to what
-This is costly, and very time consuming
-If people are spending more time and money in the courtroom, they are not
spending it in the research lab
-Precious research and development time and money is being squandered.
Electrical Industries in the United States
Patents in the Lighting Industry
Arc Lighting
-Electric arc formed by leaping gap between two electrodes
-In the United States, this technology was not patentable
-It was not deemed unique enough to do so
-This caused much competition
Thompson-Houston Electric
-Began to patent parts of the arc lighting system because they could not
patent the entire system
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Document Summary

Industries which were able to increasingly control over scientific operations. Used scientific knowledge and research application for the production of new goods. One of the most important tools to understand when discussing the idea of managing and controlling technology. Patents existed before techno-science industries, but in the second industrial revolution, the ways in which patents were used were new. Definition: an official document that allows an individual or individuals to have the sole right to make, use or sell a specified invention for a specific period of time. Prevents any other individual from making, using or selling the same product. A patent was given to an inventor as an incentive to invent. This is because if there are no rights protecting others from using that information or invention, a person may be more reluctant to share their invention for fear of being copied. Must go through the patent office in order to be granted a patent.

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