Lecture 5: the industrial revolution: characteristics of first industrial revolution starts in england in 1780s. England undergoing large population growth: 5. 5m at end of 17th century; by end of 18th population is 9m. This leads to scarcity of resources like land. Features of the industrial revolution: new energy sources human, animal, wind and water power. Wood a renewable energy source replaced by use of non-renewable energy sources like coal and oil development of steam engine (see below) energy consumption rises greatly (5-10x) Richard arkwright"s cotton textile mills in 1770"s and 1780"s were some of the first factories constructed. Wage labor, hierarchy of workers, increased use of clock to regulate worker production highly skilled workers no longer always necessary; semi-skilled and unskilled labor forces increase. Money economy as opposed to trading goods and services exploitation of labor: wages unchanged in early 1800"s even though production of cotton has increased 4x and profits 2x; worker productivity.