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NATS 1840 (200)
Lecture

Beer and Sandwiches Chapters 28 and 29


Department
Natural Science
Course Code
NATS 1840
Professor
Richard Jarell

Page:
of 8
HISTORY OF BEER
n Beer is made from grain or roots
n Barley, wheat, oats, millet, rice, sorghum, maize, cassava and sweet potatoes
n Most modern beer barley-based
n Lower in alcohol content than wine
n Typically in 5% alc/vol range, though can be nearly 10%
n Enzymes needed to break down starches
HISTORY OF BEER
n Can use enzymes in saliva (chicha)
n Enzymes from fungi
n Used to ferment cooked rice to make chiu or sake
n Barley has its own enzymes
n Malting process: soak grain, let it sprout, grind them
n This is added to grain and then cooked
HISTORY OF BEER
n Egyptians and Mesopotamians making beer by at least 3000 BCE
n Not favoured by Greeks or Romans but adopted in northern Europe
n Flavourings added to beer (spices, herbs, honey)
n Hops become important by 1300s (but not in England until 1600s)
HISTORY OF BEER
n Most beer was ale
n Used yeast that fermented on top and at warmer temperature
n Gives cloudy, strong, short-lived brew
n Lager invented in Germany in early 1400s
n Used different yeast – ferments at the bottom
n Kept cool with snow and allowed to brew for months
HISTORY OF BEER
n Lighter, longer-lasting brew
n By 1840s, spreads beyond Germany
n With special hops, pilsener lagers popular in what is now Czech Republic
n Becomes the standard for US beers
MAKING BEER
n Water is important (mineral content)
n Malt the barley by soaking, sprouting
n Malting goes on longer if a darker beer is desired
n Malt is kilned (hotter and longer for Maillard reactions if dark brew is desired)
n Malt and water (mash) are cooked to create the wort
MAKING BEER
n This breaks down the starches with enzyme activity
n Starch turns into maltose sugar and dextrins (which give body to beer)
n Manufacturers often add other grains (maize, rice) and additive at this stage
n In new container, wort is boiled with hops
n More Maillard reactions may occur with maltose
MAKING BEER
n Fermentation: use desired yeast and temperatures depending on type of brew
n Ales may brew at 25C, lagers as cool as 6 C
n Beer is conditioned by fining, centrifuging, filtering
n Carbonation may be natural (second fermentation) or added chemically
n Packaging (bottles/cans pasteurized)
MAKING BEER
n Other additives can be in the beer to maximise the head, preservatives, enzymes, etc.
n May be shipped unpasteurized in kegs
NATIONAL STYLES
n Ales traditional in Britain and Ireland
n Top-fermented, heavy body
n Drunk at cellar temperature
n Some used dark malts to obtain porter (sweeter) or stout (less sweet)
n Pale Ale was lighter, bitter beer was a bitter ale
n Corporate breweries eventually wipe out small local breweries and control pubs
NATIONAL STYLES
n Canadian ales were once the most popular beers, though much lighter than British ales
n German-style lagers dominate world sales
n Important in Holland, Denmark
n Now common throughout eastern Europe
n Also big in Asia (Thailand, Japan, Singapore)
n German brewers brought style to Mexico
NATIONAL STYLES
n Only Belgian beers differ much
n Stronger, cloudy, often cask fermented
n Many have fruit or spice flavours
MODERN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION
n Large multinationals now dominate beer production
n Three companies have lion’s share of market:
n Imbev (Belgium) – Labatt’s, Stella
n SAB-Miller (UK)
n Molson-Coors (US)
MODERN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION
n Microbreweries became important in 1980s
n Brick Brewing first in Canada
n Sleeman (Guelph) become #3 brewer and only independent left, but sold out to Sapporo in
2006
n New #3, Lakeport, also sold out
n Microbreweries today hold less than 5% of market
DISTILLATION PROCESS
n Distilled drinks much higher in alcohol content
n Most sold in Canada are 40% alc/vol
n Distillation possible because ethyl alcohol boils at lower temperature than water
n If you start with a lower-alcohol beverage (wine, beer, etc.), then alcohol boils off first
n This can be cooled from gas back to liquid by condensation
DISTILLATION PROCESS
n Result has higher alcohol content
n Chinese appear to have distilled rice wine about 2000 years ago
n By around 1100, Europeans distilling wine as a medicine
n Becomes known as aqua vitae (“water of life”)
n =Scandinavia aquavit, French eau de vie, Celtic uisge beatha
DISTILLATION PROCESS
n Can be made at home (Irish poitin, American moonshine) but can produce methyl alcohol
n Original stills were “pot stills” usually of copper
n Flavours and aromas form as distillation occurs
n However, other alcohols may form fusel oil, which is not wanted
n May have to distill twice or three times
DISTILLATION PROCESS
n Batch distillation means doing each batch from scratch
n Column Stills are used for continuous distillations
n Allows for adding raw material without shutting down
n Unwanted products vented off
n Home-made spirits may be only 30%, but continuous distillation can made 90%
DISTILLED DRINKS
n Distilled wine produces brandy
n Germans and French made them
n Armagnac and cognac districts of France famous for brandies
n Made from inferior wine; single distilled Armagnac, double-distilled cognac
n Very rough when made
n Age in wooden casks
DISTILLED DRINKS
n Water added to bring alcohol % down
n Grappa/marc made from fermented grape lees
n Fermented fruits can be the base for distilled drinks
n Eaux de vie: calvados (apples), kirsch (cherries), poire william (pears), schnapps (various),
slivovitz (plums)
DISTILLED DRINKS
n Whisky (Scotland, Canada) or Whiskey (Ireland, US) from grain beverages
n Scotch whisky made from malt beverage base
n Single-malt whisky is not blended
n Blended whiskies are blends of single malts and grain whisky
n Often aged in barrels before blending with younger whisky