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Lecture

NATS 1860 Lecture Notes - Human Brain Project, Repressed Memory, Facial Recognition System


Department
Natural Science
Course Code
NATS 1860
Professor
Keith Schneider

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NATS 1860 Note 19
Memory Lecture
- Memory can influenced by our future experience
o Sometimes there is a differentiation of perception
o New material supersedes the old ones
o The more similar the experiences, the more they interfere
o Debate on whether the old trace is erased or competition from new
trade during recall/recognition or by later rehearsal and retrieval
- Memory can be distorted by how retrieval is done
o Emotional content of the memory can affect the retrieval of memory
Post Event-Biases
- Leading questons can bias recall of the facts
o How good are witnesses if there is a bias when you want to create
your own causation
o You can influence your memory simply by biasing.
The way you ask the question influences the answers people
integrate factors into memory that they forget the original
source.
They don’t associate the question with the statement
o People’s confidence in their memory is not correlated with that
accuracy.
Schemas
- This is the knowledge of a typical situation, common event or object
o These are socially shared
- Schemas influence memory through encoding or learning of information
- Information can be congruent with the schema, they are more likely to be
recalled than congruent information
- There was an experiment that showed people would remember likely things
to be found, but not find specific deficiencies.
- Do Schemas affect encoding or retrieval?
o There is an experiment in which the subjects read a narrative of a
house description
o Subjects were in the role of a burglar or prospective home-buyer
o Perspective influenced their recall (the mode they were in)
o Therefore, schemas influence memory, not just learning.
False Memories
- Can be difficult to distinguish with things we imagine v. the actual event
o The further in time, the further that is true
o Children are more susceptible
- There is a study where they are 3-6 year-old kids to think about real and
fictious events
o When they interviewed the kids 10 weeks later, 35% of them agreed
that the fictitious event occurred.

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- Implications of false memories
o Legal consequences occur in which there are leading questions and
false suggestions.
o These are also present in issues involving child abuse
o This can cause unintentional fabrication and clinician bias
Repressed memory
- Memories or traumatic events could cause depression and anxiety
- Memories become inaccessibly, or avoidance
- Repressed memories may manifest themselves in disturbing dreams about
fantasy, and dysfunctional behaviours
- Most events are remembered incompletely or not at all
- It is not clear that they are anxiety-provoking memories are less likely to be
remembered.
Thinking, Decisions, and Cognition
Intelligence:
- Human intelligence is the ability to acquire, recall, and use knowledge to
understand concrete and abstract concepts and the relationship amongst
objects and ideas, and to use knowledge in a meaningful way.
o This is only cause the terms themselves need to be defined
o In humans, intelligence has something to do with the speed and
efficiency with which these various functions occur
- It is also shown as the ability to attain goals in the face of obstacles by means
of decisions based on rational rules
- Intelligence in action:
o There is intelligence in actions (specifying a goal)
o You accept the action
- What would be required of a computer to act (humanly intelligent)
o Pattern classification (categorization)
o Adaptive behaviour modification (learning)
o Deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning
o The development and use of conceptual models
o Understanding.
- It can be information processing:
o Information is seen from the external world that is perceived or input
o The information is stored
o The information is transformed
- Then the output is made
- General knowledge every person has an enormous among of knowledge
about the word how things work
o General knowledge the general knowledge is essential for normal
interactions between people
- General Intelligence (G)
o There are various intellectual competencies: linguistic, math/logic,
musical, spatial, body/kinesthetic, interpersonal/intrapersonal
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o Spearman argued that correlations among the different scales means
that intelligence is a unitary construct
o People are better at certain things an others
- Analytic v practical intelligence
o Intelligence tests are good predictors of academic performance, but
only moderate predictor of job performance (though still one of the
best predictors:0
o An academic problem where aptitude is important is that there has to
be complete information, single correct answer and single method
- Practical problems (knowledge is important) require problem recognition
and formulate seeking, posses multiple solutions and allow multiple methods
- Brain v Machine
- Brains are good at making judgments, inferences, and generalizations
o They are prone to error, but they can solve may problems that are
presently untenable with machines
(Face recognition, speech, language, etc.)
o Brains and machines can both solve the same tasks as the other, only
they are much slower tasks, which they are not specialized.
- Algorithms v heuristics
o Algorithm: step by step procedure that guarantees a solution to a
given problem
o Heuristics: sets of rules or strategies that work most of the time
- Artificial Intelligence
o Can human intelligence be simulated on a machine?
o Is human intelligence dependent on some property of the human
brain, or is the brain just one implementation of intelligence
- Emergent intelligent
o An emergent property is one that arises through the collective activity
of a number of units that do not themselves have that property
o Can a collection of non-intelligence items interact to produce a single
intelligent
o Is there something about a neuron’s behaviour that cannot be
reproduced by a non-organic machine
There is the human brain project in Switzerland where they
were try to simulate the brain
- Forms of Artificial Intelligence
o Weak AI: suitably programmed machines can simulate human
cognition
Computer can simulate a mind
o Strong AI: suitably programmed machines are capable of cognitive
mental states
Computer is or can be a mind
- Searle’s Chinese Room Argument
o There is a man who doesn’t understand Chinese is put into a room, in
which he is given a paper with Chinese symbols is slipped under the
door
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