NATS 1860 Lecture Notes - Phineas Gage, Paul Ekman, Walter Bradford Cannon

33 views5 pages
NATS 1860 Note 8
Ancient theories of Emotion
- Democritus
o Liver desire, heart anger, head reason
- Plato
o Liver = appetitive aspects of soul
o Heart = spirited aspects of soul
o Head = rational aspects of soul
- Aristotle
o Passions = appetite, anger, fear, confidence, envy , joy, love, hatred,
longing, emulation, pity, pleasure and pain in general
o Animals and humans share some of the passions
o Emotions involve intellect
o Humans can influence their emotions
o Heart is influential in emotional expression
- Galen
o Liver = desire, Heart = temperature and vitality, Brain = intellect
- Notice how there is an interactive between holistic medicine and
neuroscience.
- Different levels of emotion are mirrored in the brain
- Human beings are unique, in the sense of our physiology.
o We’re capable of reflecting on our emotional experience: we know
that we feel something
Francois-Xavier Bichat (18th-19th)
- 1805 theory of organic and inorganic lif
- Organic life:
o Governed by asymmetrical organs
o Associated with “passions”
o Metabolic functions
o Heart is the center
- Animal life:
o Governed by symmetrical organs (eyes, ears, limbs…)
o Habit and memory
o Ruled by will and intellect
o Higher functions
- Different illness ascribed to the two systems
Charles Bell (18th-19th)
- 1806 Essays on the Anatomy of Expression in Painting
- Dissection and observation of muscles of the face used in facial expression
- His illustrations were used by Darwin
- Bell-Magendie Law motor and sensory nerve roots
- Bell’s palsy
- If you lose the capability of smiling, then you cannot communicate to other
people that you’re feeling a certain way.
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o This way we can express how we can survive
o It’s a logical process
If someone rolls his or her eyes, we know why.
-
Guillaume Duchenne de Bologne (19th)
- Interested in facial muscles read Bell’s work
- 1850 used electricity to stimulate specific muscles
- 1862 Mecanisme de la Physionomie Humaine
- First to use clinical photography
- Specific muscles identified for specific expressions
- Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy
- A scientific approach that instead others, like Darwin
Charles Darwin (19th)
- 1872 Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
- Both animals and humans share emotions
- Praise for Bell and Duchenne
- Emotions are characteristic of species are inherited
- Emotions are adaptive (widening eyes dilation of the pupils; snarling
biting, causing fear in an opponent)
- Similarity in human expressions suggests the were attributes of a common
ancestor
- Emotions are innate, not learned (studied his infant son)
- He says you don’t need to turn to an explanation of a creator for the
complexity of life. He’s extending his views to emotion
- Qualities of species are things that have been developed through Natural
Selection
- There’s a clear indication of emotion how we feel, however as we grow older
we gain more master in displaying our emotions.
Paul Ekman (20th)
- Wanted to find a culture that wouldn’t focus on media of culture
- Asked whether emotions are learned or innate
- Did research in 1967 with New Guineans who had never seen media
- Discovered 6 shared emotions
- Inspiration for TV show Lie to Me
- Works with law enforcement, and with the Dalai Lama
- This is done in order to detect lying;
o He would put them in a room, were there is money and asks them to
steal and not steal. The ability to find micro-expressions is easy to
detect lying.
Keywords:
- Id: Involved in the psychoanalytic theories of human motivations and
feelings, it’s also inspired by localization theories in neuroscience. Look for
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Nats 1860 note 8: liver desire, heart anger, head reason. Plato: liver = appetitive aspects of soul, heart = spirited aspects of soul, head = rational aspects of soul. Galen: liver = desire, heart = temperature and vitality, brain = intellect. Notice how there is an interactive between holistic medicine and neuroscience. Different levels of emotion are mirrored in the brain. Human beings are unique, in the sense of our physiology: we"re capable of reflecting on our emotional experience: we know that we feel something. 1805 theory of organic and inorganic lif. Organic life: governed by asymmetrical organs, associated with passions , metabolic functions, heart is the center. Animal life: governed by symmetrical organs (eyes, ears, limbs , habit and memory, ruled by will and intellect, higher functions. Different illness ascribed to the two systems. 1806 essays on the anatomy of expression in painting. Dissection and observation of muscles of the face used in facial expression.

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
Booster Classes
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
Booster Classes