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Lecture 4

NATS 1940 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Discovery Science, Scientific Control, Empiricism

Natural Science
Course Code
NATS 1940
Mark Vicari

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READINGS: P. 74-77(15.1-15.4)
P. 36-45 (14.1-14.5)
LECTURE 2: The Scientific Method Cont’d; History of Evolutionary thought; Biological
Factor is the variable that affects the butterfly; presence or absence of spots
What is a controlled experiment?
Researchers use control groups to cancel their effects of unwanted variables
-Ex don’t keep cages in separate rooms and try to control temperature in each room
-do keep all cages in one room; even if temperature is precisely not controlled
#2 Empiricism
= careful measurement and observation
try to remain objective
- Ex by random sampling
Discovery science
stronger focus on describing without experimentation
- Example collecting climate data
Models in Science
=descriptions of how something works
if untested: model is considered a hypothesis
if tested extensively and supported by the results; model is considered a theory
Summary; Scientific Method
Collection of data
Measurement despritive or discovery science
Anayliss of data
Hypothesis generation
[redictions hypothesis based science
experiment using controls
aNcient Greece
Plato (427-347 BC)
Two worlds/ universes
There are really two worlds that exist in parallel:
1. Perceived world

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Imperfect; not real, an illusion
2. Ideal world
Perfect, imperceptible
Individuals we see are distorted reflections of one individual; perceived variation between
Aristole (384-322 BC)
Scale/ ladder of nature;
=ordering of species from least to most “perfect” (complex)
all creatures created to fill a position. No vacancies
Implication: no evolution
Aristoles ladder of nature incorporated into Judeaeo Christian culture
Europe, 1700s: nature Theology
= the study of nature in order to better understand God
biology tied to religion
Adaptions: traits that help organism survive and reproduce in a particular environment
= evidence of a “DIVINE PLAN”
Evlution was sees as a subersive threat to the ruling classes
Carlous Linnaeus (1707-1778)
Inventor of taxonomy
=naming and classficiation of living things
1. binomial naming system for all species
2. 2. 7-level hierarchical classification system
Linneaus published species plantarum in 1753
- described all,l known plats using polynomials
- but he
Binomial Naming
Prior to 18th century: polynomial names for species were used
= up to 12 latin words
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