NATS 4205 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Cardenolide

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Proteins: lower vs. animal protein (% of nitrogen content aka proteins = 10 vs. 20%) Leaf-chewers: grasshoppers, lepidoptera & coleoptera larvae, saw ies (hymenoptera) Breaking down & injecting the whole leaf tissue. Sap-suckers: hemiptera (aphids, leaf hoppers, cicadas, spittlebugs; spit/foam protection) Leaf-miners: only insect larvae (coleoptera, hymenoptera, diptera, lepidoptera) Serpentine (type) - leave trail on leaf & feeds on sponge tissue inside leaf. Stem/shoot borers: bark/longhorn/jewel beetles (larvae feeds on hard/wood plant tissue) Kill/damage tree when they eat through the sap circulation layer = tree can"t function. Gall: plant tissue growth/tumour grown by genetic changes/virus from insect that makes plant to abnormally grow. Maggot: chamber/ball abnormally grown in stem = cells around larvae/chamber = high in protein & larvae feeds on this. Others: feeding on roots, seeds, owers, nectar (pollination or robbing) Escape space/time: graph shows when buds are growing & when the eggs are hatching.

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