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Lecture

Pereserving food and cooking it.docx

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Department
Natural Science
Course
NATS 1560
Professor
Richard Jarell
Semester
Winter

Description
Preserving Food and Cooking It DRYING, SALTING & SMOKING (DRYING) Basically dehydration; works in a warm climate Less water to support microbial activity; just like bacteria needs to have water like you and me. Drying by air, sun and/or fire Long used for fruits and vegetables (sundried Tomatoes) Any number of vegetables can be dried that way. Works for some fish (salmon); made on the west coast Works for some meat (jerky) (SALTING) Salting often combined with drying If you live by the sea you have a lot of salt Salt cod best known Modern drying is industrial; the way you dry your clothes is how you dry your food (clotheslines) Tunnel dryers (many products) Drum dryers (liquids) & Spray dryers (liquids) (SMOKING) Smoke compounds (like formaldehyde) anti-microbial How bacon was born Both gas and particulate parts of smoke involved The small particles give you the flavour Some compounds like PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) may be harmful Cancer link with smoked fish; found that smoked fish that it is a link to cancer in Scandinavia. Smoked salmon popular Pork particularly suitable for smoking (hams, bacon); you don’t see much smoked beef Smoking not used for preservation now, just for flavour It is used in barbecuing Liquid smoke added to processed foods Combinations of drying, salting and smoking Saltpetre often added (nitrate) Nitrate linked to nitrite (gives the preserves and colours of the meat) Used to cure salamis and other sausages Used for corned(little chunks) beef, pastrami, Montreal smoked meat PICKLING & SUGAR PRESERVES (PICKLING) Goes back 3000 years Pickling means fermentation or putting food in vinegar Ancient pickling used salt (brine) Bacterial action made alcohol or acids (particularly lactic acid; sharpness in your tongue) which killed off the “bad” bacteria Cabbage responds well to fermentation (sauerkraut and kimchi) Invented in warmer climates Modern “pickles” (usually cucumbers) made by adding vinegar, not through fermentation Adding vinegar is already making it pickled. Lacks the flavour nuances Chemicals added to ensure crispness (SUGAR) Sugar also dehydrates and preserves Fruit packed with honey in ancient times Cheap cane and beet sugar in modern times made preserving common Most fruits have pectin in them, similar to cellulose Pectin – long-chain carbohydrates – in fruit form networks (SUGAR PRESERVES) Some fruits have pectin (apples, citrus) For others, pectin added Heating causes network to form Sugar removes water Final product is a gel; what jelly and jam is preserved and made from After it is bottled as jam, jelly, preserves, marmalade, etc. Means only when you have access to cheap sugar CANNING Another thing you can do is can it Mediaeval cooks made potted food for preservation Air-tight thick crust of a pie Canning in glass by Nicolas Appert 1810 Sealed and then heated to sterilize the interior so it doesn’t go bad You`ll have to heat it and the quality of the food will change English did the same using tinned iron cans Early cans very large, with soldered lids Worked well, mostly for meat By mid-19th century, many items, especially tomatoes were canned ( they were the first thing) Canned fruit, fish follow; it was really cheap. They kept eating tuna and a lot of other fishes However, heating of food does change its flavour and texture Canning done at home since late 19th century Uses glass and lids with rubber gaskets Everything was canned and put in the basement Works well for a wide range of fruits and vegetables REFRIGERATION, FREEZING & IRRADIATION (REFRIGERATION) Pioneer families used spring houses Ancients used snow and ice when available Anyone who had access to mountains had ice In North America, natural ice cut from lakes and stored in insulated buildings Ice used for long-distance shipping and in railway cars Ferdinand Carré invents refrigerator in 1857 Uses expansion of ammonia to create cooling effect Too large for domestic use Used for cold storage and ship transport Homes used ice boxes (FREEZING) First workable electric fridge 1918 but not common until 1950s; we`ve only had it for about 60 years Freezers too large for home use Go down to the butcher and get a freezer locker plus you can rent it for a few months Used in factories and butcher shops CFCs a problem for the environment; now replaced Birdseye introduces frozen food in 1923 Widely used for many products today Air Blast Freezing for small items Immersion Freezing for poultry Freeze-drying in partial vacuum for coffee, peas Less damage to food (IRRADIATION) Gamma radiation from radioactive elements wil
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