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November the code of life-1.DNA structure and replication.docx

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1610

The code of life- Part 1. DNA structure and Replication -DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid • Genetic material (found principally in chromosomes, between cell divisions-chromatin) -Number and sequence of nucleotides is unique to each different kind of DNA molecule -the nucleotides in the 2DNA strands are oriented in opposite directions • The strands in the double helix are antiparallel • The sugar phosphate backbones run in opposite directions • Conventional numbering system o Sugar carbons 1’ to 5’ o Base attached to C1’ o Phosphate attached to C5’ -The genome is the complete collection of an organisms genetic information • Each cell contains a complete copy of the genome • Packaged into a set of DNA molecules o Each species has its own unique number of DNA molecules (1 DNA molecule=1chromosome) • Between cell divisions each DNA molecule duplicates before next cell division and each daughter cell gets one copy every DNA molecules • Replication -General mechanism of DNA replication-Overview -semi conservative replication of DNA is enabled by its structure • Parental DNA unwinds • Hydrogen bonds between strands break and molecule unzips • New nucleotides fit beside each parental strand (TEMPLATE) • 2 identi
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