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October 29, 2013 Glucose Metabolism.docx

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Natural Science
NATS 1610
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Living Body- L13 Glucose Metabolism -the structure of an animal Eukaryotic cell • They consist of Cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm o Cytoplasm is divided into the cytosol and organelles  Cytosol is the gel like fluid portion of the cell  Organelles are found in the cytosol -metabolism: intracellular chemical reactions • Degradation, synthesis, transformation of small organic molecules (linear or cyclic reactions) -Enzymes play a vital role in metabolism -Coenzymes: enzyme helpers • Molecules that move hydrogen atoms and electrons to the sites of chemical reactions in cells o E.g. The nucleotides NAD+, FAD -when substrate molecules contact enzymes active sites, they bind to the site for a brief time and form the product -the active site brings the substrate molecules close enough so they interact to form the product • Enzyme shape may change • When the product molecule is released, the enzyme returns to original shape -Anabolic Pathways: Favor the synthesis of molecules for building up organs and tissues -Catabolic Pathways: Favor the breakdown of complex molecules into more simple ones -energy source for the body is the chemical energy in the carbon bonds of digestion food (ATP- Adenosine triphosphate) -Energy for cell activities: the chemical reactions that sustain the body depend on energy that cells capture when they produce ATP -Cellular respiration consists of 3 chemical pathways • Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, electron transport chain -ATP forms in the inner compartment of the Mitochondria -Mitochondria: are enclosed by a double membrane, outer and inner, allowing for stockpiling of hydrogen ions and the formation of ATP • Provide cells with energy through the breakdown of glucose during cellular respiration • Final products is CO2 and H2O • Contains enzymes for both the Krebs cycle and the electron transportation chain (both require oxygen) • Formation of ATP from the breakdown of macromolecules o In particular, glucose is broken down and converted into intermediate molecules o During these reactions, electrons and hydrogen’s are removed and tra
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