Lecture 35 Lysosomes Are the cells garbage disposal system, the cleanup crew Breaking down molecules into their base components using strong digestive enzymes Nucleus Structure Outer membrane, inner membrane, rough ER, chromatin, nucleolus, nuclear pore The nucleus, the largest organelle, contains the DNA, RNA, proteins The DNA is packed into chromosomes, an assembly of DNA and proteins The nuclear envelope surrounding the nucleus consists of two membranes This envelope has large pores that allow RNA and other macromolecules to leave or to enter the nucleus On the inner surface there are attachment sites for the DNA molecules The nucleolus is a spherical body located within the nucleus that contains primarily RNA and proteins Polio (Video: The Polio Crusade) A infectious disease which was derived from the West that in most cases has no symptoms. It was caused by a virus, which invades the nervous system. This disease can invade the brain and spinal cord, which can lead to paralysis, disability or death. The most severe cases were in the 1950s in the United States. Symptoms: Abortive polio people who have the illness but dont suspect anything because the symptoms are much similar to flulike symptom therefore having minor symptoms such as mild breathing problems, fever, cough, sore throat etc.( almost 95 of people have this form of symptoms ) Meningitis a more serious form of the disease where it one may contain neurological symptoms can lead to paralysis Paralytic polio (rare case) but the most severe that could result in permanent disability or death Vaccination There is no cure for the disease, although vaccination was the best way to protect the people. On April 26, 1954 first vaccination given to children in the US. No one was aware if the vaccination was going to work, because there no evidence. Although, about a year later the vaccination was proved to work after 20 years of research to avoid polio. But even after there were cases where the vaccine was found to be contaminated with polio.