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Lecture 11

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Department
Natural Science
Course
NATS 1670
Professor
Motti Anafi
Semester
Fall

Description
From the DNA to the organism Flow of Information The following series of events defines information flow in the cell: DNA- information storage transcription RNA – information carrier translation Proteins – activity Phenotypes – physical features and functional traits or organism Genomes www.ornl.gov/hgmis We have 23 pairs of chromosomes packed into nucleus. Chromosomes contain DNA and stretch 6 feet long. TGCA are the four letter building blocks of DNA. RNA copies the DNA. Genes affects our looks, personality, risks for diseases, etc. Definitions Atom: The smallest chemical unit of matter Molecule: two or more atoms held together by chemical bond [Methane (CH )] 4 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) DNA is the molecule responsible for transmission of information from one generation to the next in most forms of life on this planet. Nucleotic structure Sugar: Nucleotides are monomers that consist of a sugar, a phosphate group, and nitrogen-containing base DNA Structure Sugar-phosphate “backbone” Hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous base OH 3’ end Phosphodiester bond 5’ end Johnkyrk.com The two strands are “antiparallel”; one strand runs 5’ to 3’ while the other runs 3’ to 5’ Construction of the DNA molecule • DNA is made up of phosphate & sugars & bonds. • 2 DNA strands intertwine to create a DNA double helix • DNA backbone has
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