From the DNA to the organism
Flow of Information
The following series of events defines information flow in the cell:
DNA- information storage
RNA – information carrier
Proteins – activity
Phenotypes – physical features and functional traits or organism
We have 23 pairs of chromosomes packed into nucleus. Chromosomes contain DNA and
stretch 6 feet long. TGCA are the four letter building blocks of DNA. RNA copies the DNA.
Genes affects our looks, personality, risks for diseases, etc.
Atom: The smallest chemical unit of matter
Molecule: two or more atoms held together by chemical bond [Methane (CH )] 4
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
DNA is the molecule responsible for transmission of information from one generation to the next
in most forms of life on this planet.
Sugar: Nucleotides are monomers that
consist of a sugar, a phosphate group,
and nitrogen-containing base DNA Structure
Hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous base
OH 3’ end Phosphodiester bond
The two strands are “antiparallel”; one strand runs 5’ to 3’ while the other runs 3’ to 5’
Construction of the DNA molecule
• DNA is made up of phosphate & sugars & bonds.
• 2 DNA strands intertwine to create a DNA double helix
• DNA backbone has