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Lecture 17

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1670
Motti Anafi

Mutated Genes can Induce Cancer (Epidemiology of cancer) Environment Age Age, Behaviour Mutated Genes Environment, Behaviour Cancer Human cancers in all cases have more mutations compared to other cells. Cancer is a result of mutations of a maybe a certain gene; it can usually be a genetic gene. 20% of cancer is transmitted from parents to kids. • Cancer is in essence a genetic disease • It’s caused by mutation of genes. o Mainly somatic non-heritable Origin of Mutations Spontaneous-6.4 billion cells have to be copied annually Physically induced } Environment Chemically induced Tobacco and Lung Cancer The Smoking Gun • The classic mechanism of lung carcinogenesis is based on the fact that carcinogens in the tobacco end up causing DNA mutations. • Tobacco smoke consists of approximately 60 known components that have adverse biological affects. Smoking Gun Adler (1912): “primary neoplasms of the lung are among the rarest forms of the disease” Cigarette Consumption and Lung Cancer 5 year survival of lung cancer is 15% 600, 000 people are dying every year in the US due to smoking 22% of Canadians aged 15-19 years old, were smokers in the year 2001. COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) Tobacco and Cancer • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and Canada • In 1992, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency classified tobacco smoke as the most dangerous cancer-causing agent in humans • In the United States, nearly 150, 000 people die prematurely each year from tobacco- related cancers and many more from other non cancer disease (~450, 000) • Lung cancer is almost entirely preventable, since the vast majority of cases are due to cigarette smoking. 30% of all cancer deaths is due to smoking Smoking accounts for ~ 80% of all cases of lung cancer Lung Cancer Risk Increases with cigarette consumption Second-hand Smoking
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