Mutated Genes can Induce Cancer (Epidemiology of cancer)
Human cancers in all cases have more mutations compared to other cells.
Cancer is a result of mutations of a maybe a certain gene; it can usually be a genetic gene.
20% of cancer is transmitted from parents to kids.
• Cancer is in essence a genetic disease
• It’s caused by mutation of genes.
o Mainly somatic non-heritable Origin of Mutations
Spontaneous-6.4 billion cells have to be copied annually
Tobacco and Lung Cancer
The Smoking Gun
• The classic mechanism of lung carcinogenesis is based on the fact that carcinogens in
the tobacco end up causing DNA mutations.
• Tobacco smoke consists of approximately 60 known components that have adverse
Adler (1912): “primary neoplasms of the lung are among the rarest forms of the disease”
Cigarette Consumption and Lung Cancer
5 year survival of lung cancer is 15%
600, 000 people are dying every year in the US due to smoking dep.iarc.fr/
22% of Canadians aged 15-19 years old, were smokers in the year 2001.
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) Tobacco and Cancer
• Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and Canada
• In 1992, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency classified tobacco smoke as the most
dangerous cancer-causing agent in humans
• In the United States, nearly 150, 000 people die prematurely each year from tobacco-
related cancers and many more from other non cancer disease (~450, 000)
• Lung cancer is almost entirely preventable, since the vast majority of cases are due to
30% of all cancer deaths is due to smoking
Smoking accounts for ~ 80% of all cases of lung cancer
Lung Cancer Risk Increases with cigarette consumption