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Lecture 21.docx

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1670
Motti Anafi

Cells The Cell Theory • Developed during the mid 1600s o The discovery of the microscopy: This was an important technological advancement that made us know about cellular biology, this help us knew we were made out of cells. • All living organisms are made of cells. • New cells are created by old cells dividing into two: every cell was a result of one cell diving into two. The tree of life-assuming everything was coming from the origin of life • Cells are the basic building units of life Anthony van Leeuwenhoek created 400 microscopes, only 9 of which exist today The original microscope was able to maximize image by 270 times Miccrogrpahia: this book was written in 1665, talked about investigating the cellular natural world 1676: He was the first person to experience bacteria from his own teeth Figure 4.4 A bright-field, compound Figure 4.11 A transmission electron microscope (TEM). (a) The path of electrons through a TEM, as compared to the path of light through light The Cell • The cell is the basic unit of all life forms o Unicellular  Made up of just one cells: different types of prokaryotes and eukaryotes  Bacteria, yeast etc. Multicellular  Made up of several to billions of cells  Most plants and animals  These cells work together to help the organisms grow and survive Cancer is a lack of ability of cells to adapt to their environment. Cell structure: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic (picture) Prokaryotic cells are smaller than eukaryotic cells Eukaroyitic cells all have a nucleus, genetic material, cytoplasm,membrane organells (which are responsible for many specific activites) Cells can look different from others. Skeletal muscle cells B. Motor neuron, a type of nerve cell Figure 3-3, p. 43 The Eukaryotic Cell  The cell surface o Plasma membrane o Intergral membrane proteins  Cytoplasm o Mitochondria o Endoplasmic reticulum o Vesicles such as lysosomes  The Nucleus Plasma Membrane Function of Cell Membranes  Separate the inside of a cell from the outside environment  Separate cells from one another.  Provide a surface on which chemical reactions occur. : In the membrane, there are a lot of enzymes. There are quite a lot of receptors that listen to what goes on outsi
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