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Lecture 1


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Natural Science
NATS 1670
Motti Anafi

NATS 1670 LECTURE ONE; Emerging infectious diseases May 08, 2012  Microbes have caused the most devastating epidemics in recent human history o Virulent microbe; microbe that causes severe disease  Microbial diseases are often severe o Smallpox killed 40% of infected; Ebola killed 90% of infected, etc. Tuberculosis & HIV VS . Ebola virus & SARS  TB and HIV allows infected to live a normal life without drugs for a longer period of time  Successful pathogens; don’t kill the host immediately  Ebola on the other hand is extremely deadly; kills infected rapidly  Ebola can be found in animals  SARS is just as aggressive  Natural evolution of a microbe operates on its spreading capacity, not on its ability to cause a disease. The ability to make its next generation of infected people o Death of an infected host compromises the survival of the infecting microbe o Hospitals usually become cases of diseases origins  Natural selection favours less or non-virulent microbes o A well-adapted microbe can live in its host without causing significant damage. i.e. TB and HIV cases  Many microbial diseases can be viewed as a failure of the microbe to adapt to its host Beneficial Roles of Microbes  Most microbes that are around us do not cause harm  We are all infected with viruses that normally do not cause harm o Infectious mononucleosis MONOkissing disease o Chicken pox  The environment is based on microbial life o First organisms on the planet o Created oxygen  Aids in digestion  Microorganisms help break down waste. Everything is recycled by microbial life; i.e. oil o Microbes are used to clean sewage, clean industrial waste, and clean garbage in landfills NATS 1670 LECTURE ONE; Emerging infectious diseases May 08, 2012  Bacteria in large intestines that synthesize vitamins o Vitamin K is made through bacterial cells-intestinal flora produce vitamin K o The natural microbial flora provides protection against more virulent microbes o Protect us from other pathogenic microbes  Break down cellulose enzymes in the stomachs of animals that require cellulose  Turning inorganic molecules, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous, into organic compounds, nucleic and amino acids.  Plants depend on microorganisms to feed nutrients  Drug preparation (penicillin, insulin, etc.) o Microbes can be used to help make drugs o Flemingpharmaceutical microbiology  Food production; cheese, wine, beer, bread, etc. o Includes molds and yeasts: o Molds are multicellular organisms that grow as long filaments, which intertwine to make up the body of the mold o Growths on cheese, bread, and jams are examples of molds. Penicillium chrysogenum is a mold that produces penicillin o Yeasts are unicellular, typically oval to round, and reproduce asexually by budding-a daughter cell grows off the mother cell o Some yeasts also produce sexual spores o Saccharomyces cerevisiae which causes bread to rise and produces alcohol from sugar Drop in life expectancy dropped in Zambia, Lesotho, and Zimbabwe in the 90’s. AIDS is the biggest problem in Africaover 30% of the populations in said countries are infected with HIV, many have full blown AIDS World populat
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