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Male Reproductive System - Structures and Functions (Lecture 22)

by Anu J
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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1675
Barbara Czaban

Lecture 21 – Male Reproductive System (Structures, Functions, Spermatogenesis) - Three main functions for male reproductive organs: o Produce and maintain male sex cells (sperm) o Transport sperm to the outside (to the female’s body) o Secrete male sex hormones - Components of the male reproductive system o Testes (primary sex organs)  Called gonads  Form sperm and testosterone o Penis o System of ducts  Transportation of sperm and associated fluids o Accessory glands  Protect and nourish sperm  Provide transport medium to help deliver sperm to outside of male’s body - Main reproductive organs o Testes  Primary sex organ  Called gonads (in females, ovaries are gonads)  Form sperm and testosterone o Epididymis  Store sperm  Where sperm mature o Bulbourethral gland  Gland that secretes alkaline mucous-like fluid before ejaculation  Neutralize the urethra from previous acidic urine o Seminal vesicle  Nourish and thicken sperm  Aid the movement of sperm o Prostate gland  Activate sperm  Produce secretions that decrease the acidity of the male and female reproductive environments o Vas deferens  Duct that takes sperm from epididymis to urethra o Urethra  Urinary and ejaculatory tube o Erectile tissue  Spongy tissue  Fills with blood during arousal o Penis  Tool for intercourse o Glans penis  Sensitive portion at tip of penis  Sexual arousal o Scrotum  Sac for testes  Made of muscle, skin and fibrous tissue  Outside internal body o  Must be kept at 35 C so testes can produce sperm (carry out spermatogenesis) - Testes are the main organ in the male reproductive system o Major components of testes  Tunica albuginea  White fibrous capsule on testes  Septa  Connective tissue  Divides testes into sections called lobules  Seminiferous tubules  Make up lobules  1-3 tubules in each lobule  Sperm produced in seminiferous tubules  Accessory cells  Interstitial cells o Also called Leydig cells o Connective tissue between seminiferous tubules o Produce testosterone  Sustentacular cells o Also called Sertoli cells o Lie among forming sperm o Protect sperm o Give nutrients to sperm, take away sperm waste o Act like nurses to aid sperm development - Spermatogenesis occurs in testes o Males have spermatogenic cells o At puberty, spermatogenic cells stimulated to start making sperm o Spermatogenic cells divide into spermatogonia  Spermatogonia are in the walls of the seminiferous tubules o Spermatogonia divide, forming primary spermatocytes  Primary spermatocytes continually form  Push old primary spermatocytes to lumen (cavity in middle of tubule) o Primary spermatocytes become secondary spermatocytes o Secondary spermatocytes become spermatids o Finally, spermatids enter the lumen and are called spermatozoans - Mature sperm has three regions o Head  Acr
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