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Natural Science Lecture # 5 .docx

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1675
Barbara Czaban

September 19, 2012 Natural Science – Human Development Lecture # 4 Structural and Functional Organization – Order and Survival Cont.  All terms (anatomy, physiology, histology) are all inter-related  Human body is a collection of atoms  Basic cell functions are the same as living organisms  Sense and respond to changes in environment -> important because if cells don’t adopt to the environment we wouldn’t survive  Life within our bodies doesn’t want to die  Different Levels of Structure:  3) Tissue - Smooth and cardiac muscles contract but spaces in between get smaller - Majority of the connective tissue is packed, connects our skeletal muscles to our bones - Epitheal tissue is our skin and inside our bodies, it acts as liner  The key difference between 4 different types of tissues is that it’s a groups of cells that perform a particular function  4) Organ - Examples are stomach and heart - Nervous tissues would take information from our brain and tell other parts of our body - Coordination is key because each part has different functions and so that all perform together  5) Organ System - If things don’t cooperate, we become more vulnerable to disease  Living things take in energy and materials from the environment  Difficult to determine what life is  Example: living things reproduce and grow if you don’t marry and don’t have children than that doesn’t mean you’re not alive  Virus entity that causes infection, look at structure of virus it has protein and genetic material  The genetic material is either DNA or RNA and they don’t have nervous or muscle tissue  Bacteria is not cells because they don’t have a cell membrane and therefore they are not living things  DNA and RNA mutates and because that happens -> evolution  Virus won’t decompose, it will look like dust and it will not take in energy  Example: Influenza virus can tell the difference between respiratory track and skin  Shows some capacity of life, when virus particle in a cell (host cell) they will get inside and inserts genetic material to host cell, and host cell uses genetic material to make more virus -> does it fit our definition? Is it life or not?  In general its not life but it does it a bit differently  Mad cow disease cause by prions (just protein no DNA) that protein can make copies of itself  As soon as an abnormal protein comes in contact with normal protein, the normal protein becomes life  From Structural Organization to Life Processes (emerging quality)  Maintaining boundaries  Metabolism (sum of all chemical reaction in body)  Responsiveness  Movement – all living things can move - Example: plant parts of plan can move, virus parts can’t move on their own  Respiration – obtaining oxygen, removing and releasing CO2  Digestive – breakdown of nutrients  Absorption – absorbs nutrie
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