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Natural Science Lecture # 6 .docx

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1675
Barbara Czaban

September 25, 2012 Natural Science Lecture # 6 The Organization of the Human Body  The Organ Systems – grouping of organ systems that perform related functions and interact to accomplish a common activity essential to survival of the whole body  Cooperation within the body is really important  Referred to as body systems and divided into 2 groups  Circulatory system: - Heart (pump, when the heart contracts, the spaces closes and pushes out blood) - Blood vessels (circulates blood) - Blood (transports oxygen and nutrients, keeps us warm) - Sometimes called cardiovascular system  Digestive System: - Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine - Blood transports waste, acts as a transport medium - We need it for our paths/systems to work - Nutrients needs to come to our cells, and oxygen helps it to get it to our cells - Blood is lots of water and we need water for chemical reactions to occur - The air, oxygen, will be transported to our circulatory system and transports - Digestive system is basically a tube and what happens is that it slightly changes shape and interior - The starting point of the digestive system is the mouth - Hydrochloric acid which liquefies and helps the breakdown the food that we eat - Whatever can’t be digested ends up being excreted (goes out) - The tongue can be a part of the digestive system because it rolls the food called ‘bolis’  Respiratory System: - Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs - Brings air into our body, when we exhale waste products goes out of our lungs - When we get food in our trachea we choke  Urinary System: - Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra - Lots of tubes (tubules) in the kidney - The blood filters into them and through the kidneys - Waste products (urinas) drips down and comes out of the urinary bladder  Skeletal Muscle: - Bones, cartilage (insulator between bones, found at the end), joints  Muscular System: - All muscle in the body (smooth, cardiac, and skeletal0 -> 3 different types - Skeletal muscle attached to the skeleton, when we contract these causes bones to move and relax - Smooth muscle is a lining anywhere we have spaces (stomach, urinary bladder, blood vessels) - We can’t control our smooth muscle - Example: Skeletal muscles we can control because when we move to causes the bones to move whereas the smooth muscle its hard to control because when we stress we have our heart racing or butterflies in our stomach - Cardiac muscle is found around the heart (made up of cardiac muscle) - We have some levels of control  Integumentary System: - Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, wax and oil glands - The skin is the largest organ in your body - Hair is dead skin cells - The hair keeps us warm, protects us from UV radiation - The oil glands travels up to the hair and lubricates the hair because our hair is made up of dead skin cells - The sweat glands maintain our body temperature - The wax gland
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