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(2) Chapter 22- Evolution.docx

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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1675

1Chapter 22 EvolutionJANUARY 20 2013Evolution comes from the Latin word evolvounrollEvolution in the broadest sense is the unfolding ofa changing continuity it is change over timeEvolution can occur in all animate options and fields in many different areasOrganic evolutionthe evolution of living organismsie inheritable change in lines of successive generationsCan be divided in to two sub topics microevolutionmacroevolution Microevolutionchange within a species Macroevolutionone species changes into another Evolution is also the concept that there is a kinship among all forms of life because all evolved over time from one common ancestor TimeThe age of the Earth is a bit over 46 billion yearsIf the history is the Earth is compressed into a single year starting 1 January 20 March Springfirst simple cells appeared 22 JulyAtmospheric oxygen becomes abundant 17 Novembermulticellular animals appear 28 Novemberland plants appear 2127 DecemberAge of the dinosaurs31 December 907 PMancestral humans of the genus Homo1145 PMHomo sapiensour species appearedDating TechniquesRadiometric Chart that was shownUsing radioactive elements that are found to try to determine roughly the age of something You have to know the halflife of the elements which you are working with Used for mineralsRadiocarbon Instead of using a series of elements we just use carbon Carbon14 is used in determine the age of organic samplesStratigraphy The strata within the earths surface You can see the layers Can analyze the different strata A lot of the strata contains fossils Index Fossils Connects with stratigraphyTree Rings You can count the rings You can take recent sample of wood and look at the rings and see a pattern Using the tree rings pattern to date some years are wet some are dry and you can see itGenetics comes from the Greek gento be born to become somethingGenetics includes the transmission of traits from generation to generation by birth and it also includes how traits are expressed our characteristics Mutation refers to the heritable biological changes in cells and organisms that are the ultimate source for all variations in species Is the essence of evolution Is the process of change in the genetic material DNA that determines the characteristics of the species Genetic material contains chromosomes that are usually threadrod like that are made up of subunits called genes The process of change refers to an alteration in the number of chromosomes or an alternation in a gene due to a change in the DNA compositionCauses of mutations include a accidents of nature
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