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NATS 1690 (39)


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York University
Natural Science
NATS 1690
Barbara Czaban

Mendel’s Laws of inheritance - The form of a trait (ex. Seed shape in pea plants) was directed by factors inside organisms - A trait with two contrasting forms (ex. Round or wrinkled peas) was directed by two different factors that behave independently - Gamete cells (such as pollen grains and egg) contain only one of these two factors. A particular factor would be expected to be found in half of the gametes - Fertilization requires the fusion of two gametes and is random The advantages of using pea plants for genetics - Easy to grow and short generation time - Available in many varieties with distinct heritable features (characters) with different variants (traits) - 7 traits studied  Plant height  Flower color  Flower position  Seed pod form  Seed pod color  Seed form  Seed color - Each pea plant has male (stamens) organs and female (carpal) sexual organs  The anther contains the pollen grains where the male gametes are produced - In nature, self-pollinate, fertilizing ova with their own sperm  Pollen goes to the same flower Mendel cross-pollinated pea plants - Moved pollen from one plant to another by hand - Transferred pollen from the anther of plant to the stigma of another plant Mendel’s first experiment – single traits - Used true-breeding parents for the P generation – homozygous - Cross fertilized (crossed pollinated)  Crossed 2 pure breeding plants that differed in one trait  Pure purple flower X pure white flower (Dominant X Recessive)  F1 generation – produced all purple flowers - F1 hybrids to self-pollinate – Ratio 3:1 - Mendel reasoned that 3:1 ratio indicated that the heritable factor for white flowers was present and masked in the F1 plants  Did not affect flower color 
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