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NATS 1690 (39)


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Natural Science
NATS 1690
Barbara Czaban

Classical genetics - Phenotype is determined by genotype Modern genetics - Phenotype is determined by genotype + environment Genome - Dynamically responds to the environment – stress, diet, behavior, toxins and other factors activate chemical switches that regulate gene expression Levels of gene expression control - Gene on DNA  Primary transcript  mRNA  (NUCLEUS, cytosol) Protein  Protein - Transcriptional control  RNA processing control  RNA transport control  Translation control  Posttranslational control Epigenetics - The study of chemical reactions and factors that influence these reactions, that regulate gene expression - Study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence - From Gr. ‘epi’ = above, over, beyond - Coined by Conrad Waddington - Derived from Aristotle’s term “epigenesist” Mechanisms of action – Epigenetic inheritance - Some altered gene expressions may be due to environmental triggering of methylation patterns of the histones or of DNA  If a gene present in one’s genome is methylated, the trait may not be expressed - During development, socialized cellular machinery search the genome and erases its epigenetic tags in order to return the cells to a genetic “blank slate.” - In a small minority of genes, epigenetic tags make it through this process and pas
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