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Lecture 7

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Natural Science
NATS 1700
Zbigniew Stachniak

Lecture 7 – The Microchip - Integrated circuits are small and use little energy; but they can implement electronic circuits of immense complexities. - Transistors – tiny electronic switches, that play the same role as vacuum tubes or electromagnetic switches in early computers. (Three-terminal, solid-state electronic device used for amplification and switching) o The main advantages of transistors over other switches are that they can be made small, very small! o It allows or disallows the flow of electrical current through it. o Made at Bell Labs by William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain at the end of the 1940s that kick-started a transistor revolution. o Brief Time-line of the Transistor:  1925-28: Physicist Julius Lilienfeld patented his transistor in Canada and U.S. He did not provide a prototype or working application.  1947: William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain, physicists at Bell Laboratories, created the first working transistor (still large). – MAIN POINT*  1952: The first transistor-based commercial product: hearing aids from Sonotone, Maico, and Acousticon.  1953: First transistor radios: before laptops and smartphones of today they were the most popular electronic communication devices in history.  1953: The University of M
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